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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Welcome to Badgett's Coffee eJournal "All the Coffee That's Fit to Print"tm Issue No. 64 May 17, 2002 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In This Issue: 1. Welcome 2. Some Words from Our Sponsors 3. Ethiopia's Oldest Coffee Industry 4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe 5. Coffee Fest Training Sessions To Introduce New Coffee Concepts 6. Coffee Patents Looking for Promotion 7. Navigating the Sea of Terms - A Coffee Buyers Primer 8. Fundamentals for "Reaching Espresso Nirvana" 9. Links to My Friends 10. Feedback ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1. Welcome If everything goes as planned, this journal (BCE) will come to you looking a little different next issue. We are changing our listserver to improve the appearance and readability. You will see a little color, maybe a few graphics, and you will be able to click to an article instead of having to scroll and scroll and scroll until you find the articles you want to read. If you do NOT want your BCE in html, you have the option of Plain Text, as you are now receiving. Please send me an email with TEXT in the subject field and I will make the change. New subscribers will be offered the option when they subscribe, but since I am transferring the existing subscription list to the new server the changes from html (default) to text on a case-by- case basis. Long issue this week, but there is some really good coffee info, so take a breath and read it as you have the time. Anyone going to Coffee Fest in Atlantic City? You might want to print the schedule of seminars to take with you and plan ahead so you can optimize your time. I suggest going in teams and attending as many seminars as possible to get the full benefit. I ll be there so find me so I can shake your hand and thank you for subscribing. Remember, I m the tall, dark, and handsome young man with a blue baseball cap with Badgett s Coffee eJournal on it. (I lied about all but the cap.) A recent study shows that 32% of consumers change their email address every year and only 10% contact their correspondents with the change. If you are looking for someone whose email has bounced, or if you want to notify others of your email change, go to for assistance. My goal with this journal is to promote good coffee. I want to learn, educate, and entertain. I publish every other Friday via email and readers include coffee consumers, home roasters, coffee geeks, retailers, growers, roasters, equipment dealers, and anyone else who shares our passion for our most wonderful beverage. If you want to learn more about the fascinating world of coffee, this is the place. I don't sell anything and subscription is free. If you want to advertise here or submit an article please contact me for the ad rates. Past Issues (1-57) may be viewed at DISCLAIMER: All information contained here is obtained by Badgett's Coffee eJournal from sources believed to be accurate and reliable. Because of the possibility of human and mechanical error as well as other factors, neither Badgett's Coffee eJournal nor its publisher, Robert L. Badgett, is responsible for any errors or omissions. All information is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. To subscribe or unsubscribe, click here: If you have problems with subscribing or unsubscribing, please contact me directly. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 2. Some Words From Our Sponsors ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Custom Imprinted Coffee Mugs Fast Delivery - Competitive Pricing For Details Call Doxpress: 800-999-3676 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CoffeeWantAds Post your CoffeeWantAds FREE for the world to see. Buy, sell, or promote anything coffee-related. Beans, equipment, parts, jobs, advice; this is the place to promote! CoffeeWantAds is a free classified ad service and is for both commercial and residential coffee-related ads. You may post your ad by going to and hit the link to CoffeeWantAds. Most folks do not like wordy ad copy so keep your ad simple, and like a ristretto, short and sweet. You may include an image and a website url. You may also password protect your ad and change it as often as you like. What a price! What a deal! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Coffee Books: 28 great titles: Go to and click on Coffee Books for some good deals on great books. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "A man's dreams are an index to his greatness." Zadok Rabinwitz ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3. Ethiopia's Oldest Coffee Industry It all started in Ethiopia. Here lives the myth about Kaldi's dancing goats, who were the first to discover the little red and juicy berries on the wild coffee trees. And from here, in the centuries to follow coffee spread throughout the entire world. While the Kaldi story dates back some one thousand years, Ethiopia today is still as exotic as mysterious as it was then. One can find Kaldi's goats in the streets of the capital Addis Ababa, a city bursting with a mixture of modern development and ancient human history. And dating back to the start of the Kaldi legend, this North African country has continued to produce some of the best coffee in the world and now the industry is working on making it even better. But two decades of civil strife and socialist rule under the former strongman Mengistu left infrastructure in ruins, coffee farms in bad shape and in urgent need of rehabilitation, and the industry further burdened by a heavy tax system. Ethiopian coffee Ethiopia produces primarily arabica coffee (some 225,000 tons) from wild trees in the provinces of Djimmah, Sidamo, Lekempti and Salo in the west and Southwest. Ethiopia is believed to be one of the two birthplaces of the coffee bean (the other more established source being Yemen). Addis Ababa, its capital is the chief interior coffee market. The primary names for Ethiopian coffee beans are Abyssinian, Djimmahand Harrar that is also known as Harar and Harari. Harrar is the most noted coffee of Ethiopia grown in plantations near the ancient capital of Harar, which is both a city and province in the country. Coffee now known as Harrar used to be sold as either long berry Mocha or Abyssinian long berry and is usually exported through Djibouti or Aden. These coffees are described by connoisseurs as winery or fruity. The beans except for those in Sidamo are generally dry-processed. Yergacheffe is a more fragrant example of Sidamo and a wonderful stand-alone coffee. The coffee of Ethiopia, one of the countries where coffee is a native plant, faded in popularity for a while. The Harar of Ethiopia varies greatly but when it's great, it is spectacular with the sweetness and smoothness of classic Yemen Mocha. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "A man who carries a cat by the tail learns something he can learn in no other way." Mark Twain ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe -Words and condensation by Tzvi Freeman B"H Make Up Your Own Mind --------------------- Lack of clarity can be a blessing. If everything were spelled out -- exactly what you are supposed to do, when, how, with whom and for how long -- what room would be left for your sense of accomplishment? This is why the details of a person's mission in this world are held back from him: Out of G-d's great kindness, so that this little creature can decide on its own, and take credit for it. Brought to you by ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Nothing is a waste of time if you use the experience wisely." Auguste Rodin ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5. Coffee Fest Training Sessions To Introduce New Coffee Concepts Coffee Fest Atlantic City will feature a strong emphasis on training sessions included in admission at the New Atlantic City Convention Center, June 7-9, 2002. Chris Rosica of Rosica Mulhern and Associates will present the Key Note address, "Building Your Brand, Market Share and Profits in Today's Economy," Friday at 8:45 am. New topics to the show will include a retail roasting workshop, "Specialty Teas as a(nother) Profit Center," "Biology of Your Espresso Machine," "Ideas To Consider When You Open Your Second Coffee Location," and "Merchandising and Effective Display for Maximum Profit." Coffee Fest Training Sessions are open to all trade show attendees and exhibitors, and will take place between 9 a.m. and 12 p.m. in breakout rooms. The educational programming will feature presentations and demonstrations from industry specialists on topics such as tasting and choosing coffee, how to open a coffeehouse and barista techniques of professionals. Offered as part of Coffee Fest Atlantic City, training sessions create an opportunity for both exhibitors and attendees to get in touch with the latest trade show trends in the specialty coffee and tea industries and is included in the $25 Coffee Fest trade show admission price (pre-registration is $15). The lectures and demonstrations to be presented have been selected based on their level of interest among participants expected to attend Coffee Fest Atlantic City. Seating for all training sessions is first come first served. Friday, June 7, 2002 8:45am - 9:50am Key Note Presentation "Building Your Brand, Market Share, and Profits In This Economy" Chris Rosica - Rosica Mulhern & Associates 8:45am -11:00am Special Attraction "Retailer Roasting Workshop" Terry Davis -Ambex 10:00am - 10:50am What Makes an Espresso - Espresso? Dr. Joseph John - Josuma Coffee Co. 10:10am - 11:00am Specialty Teas as a(nother) Profit Center Linda Smith - Divinitea 10:20am-11:10am Everything You Wanted to Know About Espresso Pods But Were Afraid to Ask Cyrus Milikin - ABCD, Inc. 11:00am - 12:00pm Granita Machine Troubleshooting & Maintenance Ahmed Hussain - The Granita Guru 11:10am - 12:00pm Designing and Opening Your Coffee House Tom Palm - Design & Layout Services 11:20am - 12:10pm Coffee Retail Success Strategies - Ask The Experts Bruce Milletto & Ed Arvidson - Bellissimo Coffee InfoGroup 12:30pm & 3:00pm Cupping Workshop Paul Partica - Barrie House Coffee & Tea Saturday, June 8, 2002 8:45am -11:00am Special Attraction "Retailer Roasting Workshop" Terry Davis - Ambex 9:00am-9:50am Professional Barista Techniques - Espresso Extraction/Milk Steaming Keith Hayward - Tommy Thwaites - Dillanos Coffee 9:10am-10:00am Smoothies - The Healthy Alternative, Let s Check the Financial Possibilities Karl Lovas - Dr. Smoothie 9:20am - 10:10am Marketing Your Coffee Business Ward Barbee - Fresh Cup Magazine 10:00am-10:50am The Fundamentals of Barrier Bag Filling and Sealing Mark Howley - Pacific Bag 10:10am - 11:00am Biology of Your Espresso Machine Don Ramsey - Espresso Specialists 10:20am - 11:10am Frozen Blended Drinks, Achieving, Consistency, Speed & Profitability Cheri Hays - Caffe D'Amore 11:00am - 12:00pm Designing and Opening Your Coffee House Tom Palm - Design & Layout Services 11:10am-12:00pm Profit Boosting P.R. (Public Relations) Kate LaPoint - To the Point Business Imaging 11:20am - 12:10pm How to Make Profits in the Specialty Coffee Business Ed Arvidson - Bellissimo Coffee InfoGroup 12:30pm & 3:00pm Cupping Workshop Paul Partica - Barrie House Coffee & Tea Sunday, June 9, 2002 8:45am -11:00am Special Attraction "Retailer Roasting Workshop" Terry Davis - Ambex 9:00am - 9:50am Professional Barista Techniques - Espresso Extraction/Milk Steaming Keith Hayward - Tommy Thwaites - Dillanos Coffee 9:10am - 10:00am Ideas to Consider When You Open Your Second Coffee Location Bob Johnson - Kaffe Magnum Opus 9:20am - 10:10am Designing and Opening Your Coffee House Tom Palm - Design & Layout Services 10:00am - 10:50am Merchandising and Effective Display for Maximum Profit Donna Liebmann - Millrock 10:10am - 11:00am Specialty Teas from Around the World Linda Smith - Divini Tea 10:20am - 11:10am How High is Up? Frozen Beverage Sales Potential Ahmed Hussain - The Granita Guru 11:00am - 12:00pm Biology of Your Espresso Machine Don Ramsey - Espresso Specialists 11:10am - 12:00pm Service Please! The Last Words of a Lost Customer Ed Arvidson - Bellissimo Coffee Info Group 11:20am - 12:10pm Installing a Coffee Roaster In Your Retail/Wholesale Operation Terry Davis - Ambex 12:30pm Cupping Workshop Paul Partica - Barrie House Coffee & Tea ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ News Bulletin from The State of New Jersey: The state has reached its quota of left turns so any new streets that require a left turn will have to install a jug handle or a traffic circle. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 6. Coffee Patents Looking for Promotion MELVIN L. LEVINSON, Inventor Microwave Ovens/Cooking since 1962 It took me over 40 years to discover that there is a better way to make a "perfect" cup of coffee. I seek young enterprising individuals or companies to tell the world that there is a faster, better way to prepare richer more-flavorful coffee. Since I am 77 years old, I have past the stage where I can do more than enjoy a good cup of coffee. If you like to make money promoting and licensing my innovations, please contact me. US Patent No. 5,800,852 METHODS FOR MAKING COFFEE, RICE, SOY AND/OR TEA BEVERAGES USING A TABLE-BLENDER AND A MICROWAVE-OVEN. The invention combines the utility of a table blender and a microwave oven. In combination they may be used to better prepare many foodstuffs as soy milk, rice milk, soup, coffee, tea and herbal teas. For example, the removable jar and blade assembly of a table blender, containing a brewing coffee or steeping tea, is removed from the blender motor, placed in a microwave oven and heated until hot. Then, the jar, containing the hot brewing beverage, is returned to the blender motor where the brewing is completed. Taught are 1) grinding and pulverizing coffee-beans, coffee-grounds, and tea-leaves in a liquid, 2), with an electric mixer, brewing coffee and steeping tea in water or in a milk product, and 3) filtering a brewed coffee or tea out of the blender jar through innovative filter- covers. The need for percolators, French Press, drip coffee makers, espresso machines, et al, is obviated. The common half horsepower electric motor of the table blender provides beverages with more body and flavor than does the repeated dunking of a tea bag or the enormous pressure of an espresso machine. Domestic, commercial and industrial food preparation. This invention has independent utility or can be employed with other of inventor's inventions available for license that improve, simplify and speed food preparation. US Patent No. 5,925,394 "METHODS FOR DENATURING AND WHIPPING INTO A FOAM CERTAIN DENATURABLE PROTEINS FOUND IN MILK PRODUCTS, EGG PRODUCTS AND MEAT PRODUCTS" Certain denaturable foodstuffs can be whipped into a stable foam product. These foodstuffs include milk products such as whole milk, skim milk, cream, half-and-half, evaporated milk and reconstituted powdered milk; and egg products including whole eggs, egg yolks, egg whites and reconstituted dried egg products. The food products are denatured and whipped into a foam. The denaturing results from heating, altering the pH, and/or adding denaturing agents such rennet. The products include, for example, alcoholic and non alcoholic, whipped milk products, with coffee, tea, chocolate or fruit juices. Novel products as a true "alcoholic ice cream," that would require a liquor license to sell, are taught. Domestic, commercial and whipped egg products, and whipped meat products alone and in various combination industrial food preparation. This invention has independent utility or can be employed with other of inventor's inventions available for license that improve, simplify and speed food preparation. US Patent No. 6,231,909 (March 15, 2001) "FAT-HOMOGENIZER, BEVERAGE FROTHER, KITCHEN APPLIANCE TO PREPARE COFFEE, TEA, MILK, EGG, SOY, AND RICE FOODSTUFF" A hand-operated kitchen appliance to prepare coffee, tea, soy, rice, and egg beverages, froths and desserts, methods for its use and products there from. The kitchen appliance homogenizes saturated and unsaturated fat into skim milk, milk, cream, soy, rice and egg to produce enriched beverages, froths and desserts. MICROWAVE- ROASTING OF GREEN COFFEE BEANS, SOY BEANS, RICE GRAINS AND SIMILAR BEANS AND GRAINS PROVIDES MICROWAVE-ROASTED SNACKS AND BEVERAGES. Beverages, froths and desserts are prepared frozen, chilled or heated with and without a foam topping both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Fast semi-permanent, nylon-mesh filters and/or common metal filters replace slow, costly, disposable paper coffee filters. MICROWAVE ROASTED SOY MILK AND MICROWAVE ROASTED RICE MILK are desirable alternates to common soy and rice milk products. Domestic, commercial and industrial food preparation. This invention has independent utility or can be employed with other of inventor's inventions available for license that improve, simplify and speed food preparation. Melvin Levinson Email: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Rabbi Pliskin's Daily Lift Daily Lift #29 Materialism And Peace Of Mind Many people mistakenly think that peace of mind is dependent on external possessions. Rabbi Simcha Zissel cited the following story: A wise man lived in dire poverty. To save him suffering, the king gave him a large amount of silver and gold. To the king's amazement, the wise man came the next morning and said: "Here is your gold and silver. Please take it back because I don't want it." "Why would you return my gift?" the astonished king asked. "My master," replied the wise man, "my entire life I have always had peace and tranquility. I have never pursued wealth and have always been satisfied with the basic necessities of life. Due to my modest demands I have always had more than what I needed. My mind was free to engage in my studies. But yesterday when I took the silver, my mind started worrying about what I would do with the money. Perhaps I should invest in real estate; perhaps I should begin a commercial venture. My mind was in such turmoil that I was unable to sleep. I found myself so preoccupied with the money that no other thoughts entered my mind. Please take the money back. I had more peace of mind before!" Today, ask yourself: Is my pursuit of materialism in any way a source of anxiety? (see Chochmah Umussar, vol.1, p.5; Gateway to Happiness, p.80) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7. Navigating the Sea of Terms - A Coffee Buyers Primer Mark Inman, Roastmaster, Taylor Maid Farms Fair Trade, Shade-Grown, Certified-Organic. These terms have become "buzz words" for coffee drinkers around the world. Unfortunately, most of the media paints a very simplistic picture of these terms and their environmental or social significance. As a fourteen-year veteran of the coffee trade, specializing inCertified-Organic and Fair Trade coffees, it disappoints me to see the media use these terms to simply sell a "juicy story." Granted, it would be difficult to dilute these complicated issues down to an easily digestible sound bite, conveniently packaged into a marketable seal for the mindful consumer. However, I believe the cure to the ills of the ongoing coffee crisis lie in a change of consumer perception rather than the support of one seal over another. Aside from imparting the vital importance of the current seals, I hope to convey the artistry of specialty coffee and, more importantly, to raise issue with the low value consumers place on this intensely hand crafted product. It's All in the Details Shade-grown and Bird-friendly These terms are almost interchangeable and refer to the conditions under which coffee is grown. Traditionally, the coffee varieties of Bourbon and Typica were grown under a canopy of shade, which protected them from the harsh sun. This canopy was multi-storied, closely resembled a rustic forest, and provided habitat for a myriad of flora and fauna. With the industrialization of the coffee production model, coffee farmers have become dependent on systems using full-sun hybrid varieties with high-chemical inputs and mechanized harvesting methods. Gone are the days of having to harvest coffee around all those other pesky trees, plants and critters. With this agricultural shift came massive deforestation, population decline of migratory birds and other key species. Shade-Grown coffees support these important issues in farming today. It ensures that multiple species have habitat, that the coffee varieties are predominately heirloom and not hybrid and that there is preservation of the dwindling tropical rainforests. Sadly, Shade-Grown coffees only address one aspect of the complex coffee picture. The seal is criticized for its failure to address the viability of proven organic strategies, the use of agrochemicals, or whether the coffee trees come from genetically modified root stocks. Finally, the purchase of Shade-Grown coffee does not address important socioeconomic issues. Fair Trade Fair Trade addresses primarily the price points at which coffee is sold and traded on the world commodity market. Coffee, like oil, pork bellies, and frozen concentrated orange juice is traded on a market based on speculation and futures. When frosts hit Brazil, analysts might predict a short supply, which in turn causes a spike in the coffee market and prices go up. When there is oversupply in the market, as is the case today, the prices fall. When market prices fall below $1.00/Lb., as it has been for the last three years, farmers face the choice of starvation, loss of land, or urban migration replete with the usual bleak array of living options. Fair trade ensures a "floor" price that allows farmers to make minimal profits in such low markets. Fair Trade farmers receive a guaranteed minimum of $1.26 for non-organic coffees and $1.41 for Certified-Organic coffees. Like Shade-Grown and Certified-Organic coffee, Fair Trade is a work in progress and not a panacea for the present crisis. The limitations of the Fair Trade program is that only cooperatives, democratically operated along detailed guidelines laid down by Transfair USA, can apply. However, many traditional coffee farms are not co-ops. They can be privately owned or run in a tribal or communal setting. Such structures may produce premium coffee using strict environmental guidelines, pay decent wages, provide humane working conditions for its workers, but it cannot earn the Fair Trade label and premium. Despite their claims to the contrary, the guidelines of Transfair USA do not adequately address issues surrounding the environment, biodiversity, species preservation or whether or not the coffee trees come from genetically modified rootstocks. Certified-Organic Organic farming is truly more about relationships than simply "chemical-free" farming. The checks and balances that result from an organic system comes from the interaction of a wide variety of life forms. From bacteria and rhizomes below the ground to pollinators and flowers above the ground to a bear crapping in the woods on the ground, organic agriculture is more a system of relationships than a means to a marketable seal. Organic coffee farming ensures that shade-friendly varieties of coffee are planted. Chemically dependent, full-sun hybrids or genetically modified coffee trees cannot (by law) be used. The purchase of Certified-Organic coffee ensures it is not grown using any of the common pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used on coffee, many of which are banned in the United States. Similar to Fair Trade, Certified-Organic coffees offer a premium to farmers (around 40 cents above the commodities market) and during low markets, Certified-Organic farmers are able to turn profits. Small family farmers who participate in cooperatives produce most of Certified-Organic coffee available to roasters. The purchase of Certified Organic coffee creates the ability for small farms to compete against larger coffee interests. In many third world countries, the division of wealth is wide (a few wealthy, many poor and almost no middle class), therefore purchasing Certified-Organic, similar to the Fair Trade system, helps to close the gap. The fly in this system's ointment is that some farmers can come up short with Certified-Organic depending on geographic location. For example, despite similarities in growing practices and overall crop quality, a farmer in Costa Rica or Sumatra could be receiving premiums far above the organic Fair Trade floor price. On the other hand, if you are a farmer in Mexico, Peru or Bolivia, you might see prices at or a little below the non-organic Fair Trade minimum. This is where both supply and demand play a role in determining the price for the same amount of work. Multi-Certification Double and triple certified coffees are a combination of the above certifications. Multi-Certified coffees close the loopholes that make individual certifications weak. For all the reasons stated above, the current recommended purchase for maximum benefits are Certified-Organic, Fair Trade coffees. Changing Our Perception Of Coffee Media exposure has raised the global consumer's awareness of the growing crisis in the world coffee market. What do these low prices mean to you, what does it mean to the environment, what does this mean to the people who grow the world's premium coffee beans? Be it Starbucks, Peets or Green Mountain, most specialty coffee companies purchase within the top echelon of quality coffee-namely from the top 10 percent. Ultra-premium coffee companies such as Taylor Maid Farms, Batdorf and Bronson and Intelligentsia are purchasing within the top 3 percent. The consumer has been getting the deal of a lifetime for the past 20 years! Consumers have been able to taste the finest coffee available for less than 25 cents a serving; that's right, you are able to go to a supermarket or cafe, purchase the most superlative coffee the world has to offer, go home and brew yourself a cup for .25 cents. What quality of wine, chocolate, cognac or cigar do you believe you would get for .25 cents a serving, how about .40? And why is that? Specialty coffee is one of the finest hand crafted products in the world. Like wine, there are "old vine" or heirloom varieties of coffee. Such trees need special attention, making mechanization close to impossible, and offer different tastes and aromas depending on which region or elevation that variety is grown. Coffee requires 10 times the hand attention of wine production, 5 times more than chocolate and cigar production. In fact 36 humans touch your pound of coffee before you grind and brew it. The coffee crisis is not so much about a global glut on coffee (most of this coffee you would never consume) as much as it is about the public's perception of specialty coffee. Americans were raised on bottomless cups of insipid brown water that cost around 3 cents per serving. We awoke to the sweet sound of the breaking vacuum seal of 2lb. cans of Folgers or Maxwell House that our parents purchased for 2.99. Coffee was the stuff of breakfast that you used to wash down toast. It was not "gourmet" by any stretch of the imagination and it was certainly not the type of beverage you would have waited in long cafe or drive-thru lines. But times have changed, more Americans are waxing poetic about their Java estate, Nicaragua Segovia, or Ethiopian Yirgacheffe. More Americans are drinking espresso-based beverages than in any other point in our country's history. In their minds, coffee consumers are beginning to understand the complexities of coffee, yet in their wallets they still carry the memory of the price of a 2lb can of Maxwell house. Supermarkets have jumped on the "coffee boom" bandwagon of selling specialty coffee, now being responsible for 74% of all specialty coffee sold, yet they still will not allow coffee companies to offer products for over 10 dollars a pound. Why? Does their wine department set a price cap on a bottle of wine? In reality, specialty coffee should be selling to the consumer for over $20.00/Lb. This increase (only changing the price per cup from .25 cents to .40 cents for home use) would eliminate the chain of poverty and destitution that plagues so many farmers worldwide. It would allow farmers to actually earn a living being a farmer (interesting concept) rather than being the charity cases they are made to be. If we invest more in the quality of their products, in return, the consumer receives a more environmentally and socially just cup. Fair Trade, Shade-Grown and Certified-Organic are simply verifications for consumers that minimum-controls are in place to ensure balanced agriculture and social elements. Labels are not the complete answer to the plight of the farmer, you are. If you, the consumer are unwilling to pay more for coffee, then farmers worldwide will abandon the notion of specialty coffee, turn to a mechanized system where coffee will be grown on flat, monoculture fields in full sun to meet your acceptable price point. That future is up to you. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed." Dwight D. Eisenhower ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8. Fundamentals for "Reaching Espresso Nirvana" For Traditional (Handled), Semi-Automatic Espresso Machines Reprinted with permission of 1st Line Equipment LLC, Note: The following does not fully apply to superautomatic, hand lever, or steam power-generated espresso machines that "may" operate under different principles and guidelines for proper operation . Part II: The "Science" In this section, we will cover the following areas that pertain to the "science" for "reaching Espresso Nirvana" The Fresh Roast of The Coffee Bean The Fineness of The Coffee Grind The Dosage The Tamp Pressure The Brewing Temperature The Brewing Pressure The Fresh Roast Of The Coffee Bean The most important ingredient to any espresso, cappuccino, or latte is the coffee bean and its degree of roast. As you are well aware, there are many different types of coffee beans originating from many different countries with roast masters applying their own degree of roasting techniques and roast times. Coffee beans from a single coffee farm can be known as "estate coffees". Coffee beans from a single country origin are known as varietals. Blending, as preferred by roast masters, is the mixture of 2 or more "estate coffees" and/or varietals to produce their own signature coffee blend. Each estate coffee, varietal, and blend would change in flavor characteristics when the degree of roast changes. Just as wine changes flavor with age, coffee beans change in flavor with different roasting times. According to roasting professionals, there are four (4) different types of roasts that are suitable for proper espresso extraction. In order of increasing darkness of roast, they are full city roast, vienna roast, espresso roasted, and french roasted. The main reason to utilize coffee beans with these roasts is that the flavor and crema production of your espresso is highly dependent upon the oils formulated within the coffee beans during and after the roast. Any roast lighter than full city roast may not properly caramelize the coffee beans to produce enough oils for your espresso. As the roasts become darker, the oils tend to move to the surface of the coffee beans as you would see a "glossy" surface or see/feel the oils on them. Another important factor in the roasted bean is freshness. Freshly roasted beans will provide superior tastes and aromatics. Stale beans or those laying around for a while will not allow you to achieve the fundamentals for espresso nirvana no matter how much you master them. Ultimately, it is important to experiment with different coffee beans (estate coffees, varietals, and blends) with varying degree of roasts to find the best one that suits your palette! Most importantly, it is best to use coffee beans within 7 days of the roasting date! The Fineness of The Coffee Grind One of the most important parameters to proper espresso extraction is your coffee grind. Fineness Of The Coffee Grind The most important aspect of grind fineness is ability to grind very, very fine (like nutrasweet) and consistency. The consistency of the grind is directly attributable to the design and performance of your grinder. There are three types of grinders - hand grinders, blade grinders, and burr grinders. Hand Grinders Some, not all, hand grinders can grind fine enough and consistently for espresso extraction. The process of hand grinding involves the laborious task of turning the grinding handle many times. The advantage is that this slow process of grinding does not produce any heat that would affect negatively affect your coffee grind. Blade Grinders Blade grinders are identified by a whirling blade that "chops" the coffee beans. Grinding long enough, the coffee beans will result into a coarse grind more suitable for drip coffee. Grinding even longer, the coffee beans sometimes can turn slightly finer. However, the finer grind is not suitable for proper espresso extraction. The reasons are 1) the coffee grind will not be consistent, and 2) the high-speed blade will create excess heat which will adversely affect the oils in the grind of the coffee bean. Burr Grinders Burr grinders typically consist of two opposing grinding burrs - one stationary and one attached to the motor wheel. There are two types of burrs - conical and flat. Conical burrs are designed to produce greater consistency in the grind fineness. However, the type of burr becomes irrelevant as one chooses a high quality "flat" burr grinder that typically houses larger burrs closer to the commercial type. Burr grinders typically have the advantage of lower heat generation due to the lower speed of the burrs. In addition, differeent degrees of fineness are achieved by changing the setting which changes the distance between the grinding burrs. The greater the distance between the grinding burrs, the coarser the grind. Oppositely true, the lesser the distance between the grinding burrs, the finer the grind. The equidistance of the grinding burrs achieves the consistency needed for proper extraction of your espresso. The settings on burr grinders will differ from customer to customer. First, all electric burr grinders have relative settings. This means that a setting of "6" on one particular grinder will not be "precisely" the same as a setting of "6" on another unit of the same model grinder. Second, each type of coffee and the darkness of roast will and may require different settings to adhere to the fundamental rule. In the former instance, beans from two different farms, countries, or blends will have differences in the grind fineness from one to the other in acquiring the fundamental rule. The reason is that different beans have varying degrees of hardness. In the latter instance, a darker roast will require a courser grind when compred to a medium roast to achieve similar extraction times and volume (however, the taste will be different). Lighter roasted espresso beans should be ground finer than darker roasts. The main reason a finer grind is required on lighter roasts is that lighter roasted coffees do not have the coffee oils on the bean surface. Therefore, a finer grind is needed to expose those oils on a greater surface area that results from a finer grind. Darker roasted coffees tend to have oils at the surface. Therefore, experimentation (not frustration) is essential in locating the best setting for your coffee beans. Finally, burr grinders should always be adjusted when the grinding burrs are in motion. This is especially important when adjusting from a coarse setting to a finer setting. The reason is that coffee grinds will always be between the two burrs, and this ground coffee will not allow you to properly adjust the grinder to a finer setting. The end result is a more consistent grind and less chance of the burrs becoming dulled or gummed. The Dosage The amount of coffee (known as the dosage) you place into the filter basket (on traditional filter handle machines) will also affect the "fundamental rule". The industry standard in the United States is 7 grams of coffee roasted and ground for the single espresso shot and 14 grams of coffee roasted and ground for the double espresso shot. This standard is an industry guideline. This means that the guideline can be adapted and changed to one's personal need to achieve the crema rule and taste profile desired. Typically, adding an amount greater than 7 grams of coffee will result in a longer extraction time since the "extra" coffee will increase the path the water needs to travel - this creates greater resistance. Less than 7 grams would result in a quicker extraction time since there will be less coffee to create the resistance needed for a proper extraction. The Tamp Pressure Tamping is essential to proper espresso extraction. Proper tamping would result in creating enough resistance for the water to pass through the coffee grind, in creating even distribution of resistance, and in easy removal of the ground coffee from the basket after extraction. Tamping is the application of applying force to compact the loose coffee grind in your filter basket into a "puck". A special tool known as the "tamper" is utilized to tamp the coffee. For some machines, the tamper is built into the machine, while in others; the back of the measuring spoon is utilized as the tamper. The tamper consists of a tamping plate (which made from either plastic, wood, aluminum, or stainless steel), a stem, and a handle. There are two types of tampers - flat or curved. Flat tampers are typically utilized when the filter basket is straight edged on the bottom of the basket and curved tampers are utilized when the filter basket has a curved edge on the bottom. In the market today, there are two types of home model espresso machines that impact the technique needed to acquire proper tamping pressure. The first type are home model espresso machines that have pressurized handles or filter baskets. Please note that either the basket or the handle is pressurized, but not both on any machine. This type of machine design compensates for "tamping error" by allowing the design of the filter handle or filter basket to create the required pressure needed for a proper extraction of espresso. Machines of this type include the Capresso line, the Solis crema SL line, and the Saeco line. Other machines, such as Gaggia, sometimes include pressurized disks that serve the same purpose. The second type is a machine that has standard, non-pressurized filter handles or baskets. All traditional, commercial machines, as well as many home models, are of this type. Tamping pressure is much more critical on these machines since the resistance to create a proper extraction relies more on the tamping pressure and fineness of grind due to the fact that the "pressurized handle or basket" is non-existent to create the pressure. Here are the different techniques for each type of espresso and cappuccino machine. General Technique For PRESSURIZED Filter Handles and Baskets The general technique for tamping in a pressurized filter handle or pressurized filter basket would be less than 30 pounds. In other words, only a very light tamp is needed. The proper tamp can be accomplished with the hand tamper, with the tamper built into the espresso machine or grinder, or with the back of the measuring spoon. Please note that to firm of a tamp will not allow the water to come through the coffee grind or will result in a very long extraction time (usually exceeding 27 seconds) General Technique For STANDARD Filter Handles and Baskets The general technique for tamping in a standard filter handle is to apply about 30-50 pounds of evenly distributed pressure into the coffee ground dosed into the filter basket. The technique should be completed with a slight twist to result in a slightly polished finish on the surface of the tamped coffee. The 30 pounds of tamp pressure is a guideline and an area for experimentation as some of our customers have used less tamping pressure and others have tamped to 50 pounds of pressure. Some 1st-line equipment customers have used a bathroom scale to measure tamp pressure. By using a scale to measure pressure, you can change one of the other parameters to achieve the fundamental rule. The Brewing Temperature The optimal brewing temperature, as measured at the point where the water contacts the coffee grind, is 190-204 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature of the extracted espresso will vary from 150 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature loss is attributable to the ambient temperature, the brew group temperature, and the temperature of the cup. Therefore, it is important to preheat the brew group and the cup prior to extracting espresso. The brew group can be pre-heated by pulling an "empty shot". In other words, the filter handle and basket should be placed on the brew group (or grouphead) without any coffee and hot water from the machine should be run through and into the cup that needs to be pre-heated. We have found a temperature loss of up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit in circumstances where customers do not preheat the brew group, the filter handle, the filter basket, or the cup. Also, do not make the mistake of rinsing your filter handle and filter baskets with cold or hot faucet water. This can also reduce the temperature. It is best to wipe the handle and basket clean with a cloth or paper towel. In addition, the closer the spouts of the filter handle to the base of the cup, the less the temperature loss due to room temperature. The Brewing Pressure The optimal brewing pressure for pump-driven espresso machine is 8 to 9 bar or atmospheres. Most machines show pressure "ratings" of greater than 9 bar. Please note that these "ratings" indicate the "maximum" pressure that can be produced by the pump. It does not mean better espresso! Quite the contrary! Over 9 bar pressure can produce very bitter tasting espresso. Since most home model machines do not have gauges to monitor the brewing pressure, you may wonder how you if we are at the optimal pressure. The answer is very simple. We will know if we are at the right pressure by comparing our results to the fundamental rule - double espresso shot = 2 to 3.0 fluid ounces in 23 to 27 seconds The pump pressure is regulated by the resistance in the filter basket - the resistance of the espresso bean finely ground and tampered into the filter basket or the resistance created by the pressurized filter handle or basket. A greater resistance in the filter basket will result in a greater pressure created by the pump. Too much pressure, the espresso will take longer than 27 seconds to extract. This is called over extraction and will result in a very bitter flavor. In addition, the home model espresso machines we sell have an expansion relief valve - when there is too much pressure (that over 11-12 bar), this expansion relief valve will open to relieve the excess water pressure and divert it to either the machine's drip tray or back to the water tank. The purposes are to avoid pump damage and lessen the chances of over extraction. A lesser resistance in the filter basket will result in a lesser pressure created by the pump. Too little pressure, the espresso will take less than 23 seconds to extract. This is called under extraction and will result in a very weak, water down coffee. In this case, the resistance in the coffee puck needs to be increased by changing one of the above variables - coffee grind fineness, amount of coffee grind, or tamping pressure. By grinding finer, increasing the amount of coffee grind, and/or increasing the tamping pressure, the resistance will become greater to extract at the right pressure. Therefore, the resultant brewing pressure is a direct result of the resistance in the filter basket. Now, that we have covered the science, we should morph your knowledge into the arte! Reprinted with permission of 1st Line Equipment, LLC, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Character is higher than intellect. A great soul will be strong to live as well as think." Ralph Waldo Emerson ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9. Links to My Friends Visit the links page on our website to get the latest links to both coffee related and unrelated sites of interest. You may now add your link at Check it out. You might find some old friends and make some new ones. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "But peace does not rest in the charters and covenants alone. It lies in the hearts and minds of all people. So let us not rest all our hopes on parchment and on paper, let us strive to build peace, a desire for peace, a willingness to work for peace in the hearts and minds of all of our people. I believe that we can. I believe the problems of human destiny are not beyond the reach of human beings." John F. Kennedy ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 10. Feedback Tell me what you think. What do you want more of..less of...what would you change, add, or delete? ISSN: 1534-4614 - Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA This journal was made from 100% post-consumer, recycled, non-polluting, and non-trashcan filling electrons. (c) Copyright 2002 Robert L. Badgett. All Rights Reserved.

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