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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Welcome to Badgett's Coffee eJournal "All the Coffee That's Fit to Print"(tm) Issue No. 63 May 3, 2002 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In This Issue: 1. Welcome 2. Some Words from Our Sponsors 3. How to Choose the Right Grinder 4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe 5. A Tale of Woe 6. The Kona Tradition by C B. Smith 7. CoffeeWantAds 8. Starbucks in the News 9. Coffee Kids 10. Links to My Friends 11. Feedback ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1. Welcome Please visit the new BCE website at its new address, You will find many new features: Past Issues, Links to Our Friends, CoffeeWantAds, Affiliates, and more to come. You are welcome to add your coffee-related website link and to post an ad for anything coffee-related in CoffeeWantAds. Check out the Amazon ad in the Affiliates section, where you'll find two books no coffee person should be without: "Home Coffee Roasting" by Kenneth Davids for $11.17, and "Uncommon Grounds" by Mark Pendergrast for $12.60. You can help pay the costs of BCE by shopping through my website, since BCE will make a little commission on your purchases. If you're going to buy from, why not reach them through BCE? We both win. Lots of changes going on at BCE. See my Tale of Woe below. One result of having to start over on a new domain and website is that I am taking a hard look at where we are and where we are going with BCE. One complaint I have received often (in various forms) is about the format. "Too long!" "It's too hard to find the article I am interested in." "Too plain; it's like reading a 100 year-old newspaper. Put some pictures and color in it." I do listen and I am investigating all the possibilities. One format that I'm investigating is similar to a newspaper website, such as or, where the articles are briefly listed with the first sentence and a link to the complete article. I would then use BCE email to direct you to the website. You could then do a search on the website for past articles. One of my favorite coffee websites is Michael Smith does a great job with his website and newsletter. Please send your comments on format to me. I want to improve BCE and I need your help. A Cup of Joy: My goal with this journal is to promote good coffee. I want to learn, educate, and entertain. I publish every other Friday via email and readers include coffee consumers, home roasters, coffee geeks, retailers, growers, roasters, equipment dealers, and anyone else who shares our passion for our most wonderful beverage. If you want to learn more about the fascinating world of coffee, this is the place. I don't sell anything and subscription is free. If you want to advertise here or submit an article please contact me for the ad rates. Past Issues (1-57) may be viewed at DISCLAIMER: All information contained here is obtained by Badgett's Coffee eJournal from sources believed to be accurate and reliable. Because of the possibility of human and mechanical error as well as other factors, neither Badgett's Coffee eJournal nor its publisher, Robert L. Badgett, is responsible for any errors or omissions. All information is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. To subscribe or unsubscribe, click here: If you have problems with subscribing or unsubscribing, please contact me directly. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 2. Some Words From Our Sponsors Custom Imprinted Coffee Mugs Fast Delivery - Competitive Pricing For Details Call Doxpress: 800-999-3676 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "There is still no cure for the common birthday." John Glenn ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3. How to Choose the Right Grinder Why Grind Your Coffee? The quick answer is freshness. If you're going to buy gourmet coffee or espresso beans, you want to get the most out of them. We recommend grinding your coffee just prior to brewing it in order to get the freshest tasting, most aromatic coffee possible. There's nothing quite like tasting and smelling a fresh ground hot cup of coffee made from fresh ground beans! The ideal grinding practice is to: 1) Grind immediately before you brew. 2) Achieve the finest grind possible that won't clog the paper filter, or release too much sediment into the cup, if using a press pot. The purpose of grinding is to effectively increase the surface area of the coffee exposed to the water so more of the flavor oils can enter the brew. Fine grinds result in more flavorful, economic coffee. If it's so fine that it produces undesirable sediment in the cup, or the brewing time is lengthened because the paper filter clogs, you have gone too far. 3) Use a good grinder. The recommended grinding method available to the home coffee brewer are burr grinding devices. Although slightly more expensive, it will pay for itself in the long run. An even grind will provide for an even extraction of the oils from the coffee. Ill-proportioned grind will cause some of the coffee to over-extract, and some to under-extract. Over- extracted coffee will taste bitter and overly pungent. Under- extracted will taste weak and thin. There are two basic types of grinders, the Blade Grinder and the Burr Grinder Blade Grinders The most common type of grinder you can find at your local household supply store is the blade grinder. The blade grinder has a motorized base with a container on top where you place the beans. It has a small barrel with sharp metal blades that spin at very fast speeds. The beans are chopped repeatedly until the desired consistency is reached. The fineness of the grind is determined by the length of time the beans are ground. These grinders can produce coarse, medium, and fine coffee grind, but are not recommended for espresso makers. Advantages: They are usually less expensive, easy to use, and are adequate for various coffee makers, such as drip and pour-through coffee makers and coffee press pots. Disadvantages: The coffee granules vary in size from rocky and coarse to a very fine powder. Powder clogs your coffee filter and slows the passage of water so that it extracts too many bitter compounds. Rock granules allow the water to pass through too quickly, not allowing the coffee to release all the potential contents into the brew. Coffee grounds tend to burn in a blade grinder due to the high heat produced during the chopping process, causing you to lose some of the flavor you wanted to achieve by grinding your own beans in the first place. Burr Grinders The burr grinder is the most highly recommended grinder for the coffee brewing process. The burr grinder utilizes a wheel with burrs molded into it. The wheel spins at a very high speed and the coffee beans fall through the grinding chute, a few beans at a time, where they are then crushed between the grinding wheel and a stationary grinding surface. Advantages: Burr grinders produce a more consistent, uniform grind of beans, regardless of how many or few beans you feed it, and regardless of the grind setting you choose. This means that you end up with an even bed of ground coffee for hot water to pass through. Another advantage of the burr grinder is that it only generates a little heat during the grinding process, keeping the beans cool and preventing the loss of flavorful aromatics that would otherwise evaporate if exposed to heat. Burr grinders vary widely in cost, but they're well worth the investment. There are two basic types of burr grinders: * Wheel Type Burr Grinder: The less expensive of the two, the wheel type burr grinder is a good general-purpose grinder for a variety of brewing methods. These are relatively inexpensive to purchase (between $40.00 to $100.00) and offer a better grind consistency than the blade grinder. Many burr grinders feature a timer and provide a way to set the amount of coffee you want ground (from 2 to 12 cups) and will shut off when it reaches the correct amount of ground coffee needed. Disadvantages: They are usually noisier than the blade or conical grinder, and the chute sometimes clogs when oily coffee beans are used. They can also develop a static charge, which can cause the grounds to stick to the inside of the catcher. This is easily remedied by removing the catcher after the coffee has been ground and lightly tapping the catcher on the counter to loosen the grounds before pouring them into your maker. They are not recommended for grinding beans for espresso. * Conical Burr Grinder: The burrs in the conical burr grinder are shaped like two mating cones; the grinding teeth facing toward each burr set. The coned shaped wheel spins at very slow speeds. The coffee beans fall through the grinding chute, which are then crushed between the grinding wheel and a stationary grinding surface. The advantages over the wheel type burr grinder are that one cone spins slower producing a better grind consistency, virtually no burning of the grounds, little static charge, and less clogging. They are also better for oily or flavored coffees beans. Although these are more expensive, they are a better choice if you are planning to grind beans for an espresso maker. Disadvantage: The main disadvantage of the conical burr grinder is that it usually costs more than the wheel type burr grinder. Costs generally run $150.00 and up. VISIT US TODAY Flying Bean Gourmet Coffee & Espresso Toll Free 1-888-381-1265 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self-confidence." Robert Frost ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe -Words and condensation by Tzvi Freeman B"H What You See ------------ If you see what needs to be repaired and how to repair it, then you have found a piece of the world that G-d has left for you to complete. But if you only see what is wrong and how ugly it is, then it is yourself that needs repair. Brought to you by ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of standing still." Franklin D. Roosevelt ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5. A Tale of Woe New website, new website address. Why would anyone want to make such changes? Believe me, I did not want to change anything, but through a series of calamitous events I lost my domain ( and with it, my email address. It started when I tried to access my website April 21 and could not get it. I thought my server was down temporarily so I wasn't too concerned. I found out later that my domain had expired! I had failed to contact them with my change of email and they were unable to let me know of the expiration. I called the domain host and discovered that I had to wait until the domain purged from their system before I could re-acquire it. I checked several times a day for the next week to register it and then on Friday I discovered that the domain was registered to a company in Hong Kong. I never dreamed that anyone would want my domain. I was really disappointed. I have tried to contact the Hong Kong company several times, both by email and by telephone, but have not been successful. I want to discuss getting the domain back. I have worked very hard for two years to establish the presence of BCE and the domain,, on the Internet. Many fine websites have links to the old domain and I am asking them to change the url so the link will work. If you tried to access my website or send email since April 21, now you know why it didn't work. A lesson for everyone is to make sure your domain is registered and renewed. Do it yourself! It is too important a task to depend on someone else. If you're not sure of your registration, go to and enter your domain. Then click "Who Owns it?" to get registration info. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Draw a crazy picture, Write a nutty poem, Sing a mumble-gumble song, Whistle through your comb. Do a loony-goony dance 'Cross the kitchen floor, Put something silly in the world That ain't been there before." -Shel Silverstein ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 6. The Kona Tradition by C B. Smith Another day begins for the Kona coffee farmer. While cardinals start their song and morning breezes flow down from Mauna Loa (elevation 13,333 feet), the farmer grabs a cup of his best brew and walks out the door into history. Kona coffee refers to coffee that is grown only in the North and South Districts of Kona on Hawaii Island (also known as "The Big Island"). These Kona Districts cover an area of about 20 miles long and 2 miles wide, on the west coast of the island. The North Kona area is on the slopes of Mt. Hualalai, while South Kona is on the slopes of Mauna Loa. At last count, there were fewer than 600 farms growing coffee in the Kona Districts. While there are several farms over 65 acres each, the majority are much smaller and average about 3 acres. Only these farms produce Kona coffee. Coffee that is grown on other parts of the island or on other islands within the Hawaiian Chain may not call their product Kona coffee. Kona Coffee, a Coffea arabica -var. typica, is generally acknowledged as one of the two most highly valued coffees in the world and it was brought, in 1829, to Hawaii Island by missionary and teacher Samuel Ruggles. Ruggles brought coffee as an ornamental plant from the island of Oahu where Don Francisco de Paula Marin is credited with introducing the very first plants in 1813. The Coffee immediately thrived in the optimum weather pattern of mauka (mauka* mauka* - a Hawaiian term for "towards the mountains"*) Kona, where sunny mornings and an afternoon cloud cover continue to be the norm. Kona's wet summers and dry winters is the exact climate the Coffea arabica plant prefers. Initially, the coffee was simply consumed locally or sold to passing whaling ships. In 1845 the first exports to California began an industry! The early years of the Kona Coffee market were exciting. Farmers were encouraged by landowners to begin coffee farms, although some early land leases to the farmers, demanded as much as half the crop in payment. page two In 1900, however, the final tariff for sugar cane shipped from Hawaii to the United States was removed , and the development of new sugar cane lands was enthusiastically encouraged by Territory of Hawaii administrators. Coffee was quickly relegated to a secondary position and some acreage was even plowed under. Although the original farmers in 1893 were Japanese contract coffee laborers brought directly from Japan to work coffee, no coffee plantation begun in the late 1890s was financially successful. Surviving the mercurial nature of the marketplace was and continues to be difficult for Kona coffee. - In 1999 (and in 2002), for example, the price for a pound of green coffee is about $11/lb. - In 1898, the price for a pound of green was $0.158 /lb. A 1918 frost in Brazil, the world's largest coffee producer, caused the price of green Kona to rise to $0.28/lb., but the 1929 US Depression caused the prices to fall again. By 1940, the price of a pound of green Kona was down to only $0.08/lb. Insect pests and other organisms were also problems. A US Department of Agriculture report published in 1974, cautioned that only 11 percent of the full-time Kona coffee farmers were under 55 years old and the report also suggested that the coffee industry was in jeopardy of dying out. It was simply impossible to be full-time farmers of Kona coffee and make ends meet because of unstable prices, and it was the older, more settled group who could afford full time farming. Over twenty years later, thanks to farmer determination, a loyal following and the natural tenacity of the plant, Kona coffee cultivation now has a more varied mix of farmers and the crop is in demand. Many people seeking alternate lifestyles during the 1970s, discovered the pleasures of Kona and the farming life, eventually purchasing land leases and this mix of real individuals now thrive as Kona coffee farmers. Some current farmers are former university agriculture graduates who worked for large agribusinesses and found there was too much politics and not enough agriculture in what they were doing. Many more recent farmers wanted a simpler life. There are also continuing multi-generational families of Japanese, Filipinos, Portuguese, Hawaiians and Haoles* (Haoles * Hawaiian term for Caucasians, White foreigners) who continue to enjoy the family farm life as a Kona coffee farmer. page three According to the Hawaiian Experiment Station- Bulletin #66, published in 1932, "with the exception of land rental and fertilizer, the entire cost of coffee as it is sold to the represented in hand labor." Nothing has changed and that formidable amount of "hand labor" contributes to the high value and excellent quality placed on the taste of Kona Coffee. From September until February, the Kona coffee farmer is singularly focused on picking and processing the ripe red coffee cherry. Kona coffee will always be only hand picked because the slope of the land is severe (20% or more in places) and the rocky condition of the ground does not lend itself to machinery. Kona coffee is selectively hand picked because immature or over ripe beans would ruin the delicate mellow flavor. Because the random spring flowering of the coffee plants causes a random ripening of the coffee beans during the harvest, each coffee tree on a farm will be visited from 4-7 times by pickers during the picking season that year.. There can be from 250-400 coffee cherries per pound depending on their size. A good coffee picker can pick from 200-300 pounds per day and be paid in 1999 statistics $0.40/lb for the cherry or ripe coffee. (The record for one picker for one day in 1997 was a remarkable 825 pounds from sunrise to sunset!) Each pound of cherry represents only 1/7 of a pound of dark roasted coffee. At the end of a picking day ---and the succession of picking days by only a few people on a farm can last 3 weeks---the farmer gathers all the burlap bags filled with coffee cherry, sews the filled bag closed, at the very top - with an upholstery needle threaded with grocery string -and then heads for the pulping mill. Most farmers pay to have their cherry pulped and dried at a processing place. Water is not municipally supplied in mauka Kona and during the harvest, the weather tends to be dry so it would be very hard to have enough water to process your coffee, unless you went out and trucked water home, on a daily basis.. Some farmers continue to sell their coffee at the cherry level, but more farmers are now selling further along the process. cont. page four The assortment of farm vehicles at the pulping mill is indeed colorful with WWII Jeeps, trusty and rusty 4 X 4's with nonfunctioning odometers/license plates and the occasional newer pickup truck. Sometimes only a single bag emerges from the trunk of the family car. At the pulping mill, the skin of the coffee bean is pulped off and the beans are soaked in water to remove the sugary pulp or mucilage still adhering to the coffee bean. The processing, known as wet fermentation takes from 12-36 hours to accomplish. The coffee beans are then washed clear with pure volcanic aquifer water- some of the purest water in the world and now the beans will be dried to the parchment stage. For best results, the beans are laid out on the hoshidana *(hoshidanahoshidana* - a Japanese name for the above- ground drying platforms) so that Kona's warm sun and gentle breezes will dry the precious beans to the correct moisture level. The drying beans are watched closely and raked often for uniform drying. The hoshidana is cleverly constructed so that at the first sign of a rain shower, a roof can be quickly drawn over the entire platform, protecting the beans. Some processors elect to use forced hot air in large containers to speed up the drying beans, and many purists claim they can actually taste the difference between sun-dried and kiln-dried. The connoisseur avers that the sun-dried beans maintain more of the delicate mellow flavor associated with Kona's coffee. This is the *parchment* stage which had followed follows the *cherry* stage. Most coffee is kept stored at the parchment level. When the farmer wants green coffee, he takes his parchment bags to the green or dry miller and the coffee beans then have their outer skin or parchment (colored) removed. Next the beans can be graded according to size and defects, or kept in an "Estate Grade", and they can also be State of Hawaii Certified as to Origin and Grade by Hawaii Agriculture Inspectors. Green coffee may be stored in a climate-controlled atmosphere for up to a year. Some experts claim the flavor is enhanced by storage while others say fresh is best. When a farmer wants a roast, he takes his green coffee to the roaster and gets it roasted and .....twenty-five pounds of green results in about 20 pounds of dark roasted whole beans. page five Work continues on the coffee farm during the non-harvest season as well. From March through September, the Kona coffee farmer carefully cultivates his crop. Pruning off the older, less productive branches in the spring, allows the new shoots to begin their growth cycle. The farmer must also fertilize his many hundreds of coffee trees. Three other very important jobs happen during this period. The farmer must visually anticipate and carefully select the most promising shoots from each coffee tree for the next few year's production. This is quite a science and can make the difference in crop production. The new growth of early summer needs to be pared down to produce future efficient yields. Rats need to be actively discouraged from eating the sweet mature beans. Weed control in the lush and fertile summer fields needs to be constantly managed. Simply said, a wild coffee tree has a far smaller yield than a cultivated one . Much of the mauka Kona coffee acreage has been continuously cultivated since the Hawaiians first farmed the lands in prehistoric Hawaii (pre -1778). Stone walls built by the agricultural Hawaiians to farm their own food crops, still remain on much on the land. In many cases a bulldozer or tractor has never touched or compacted the coffee land and the volcanic and organic soil remains porous which is what Kona coffee enjoys most. Despite the year round labor, Kona coffee farmers love what they do and feel privileged to be able to work outdoors in the extremely pleasant subtropical Kona climate cultivating a product that is famous among coffee drinking societies through out the world. The entire Districts of North and South Kona remain beautiful in no small part because of the lush green slopes covered in old growth coffee- some farms made up of trees over 100 years old. NO REPRODUCTION OF THIS WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR which is easily gotten, but please email or TEL: 808-328-8060 C B. Smith Smithfarms, PO Box 248, Honaunau, HI 96726 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Rabbi Pliskin's Daily Lift Daily Lift #6 Daily Lift #11 Believe In People Believe in people and you will influence them to believe in themselves. Your belief needs to be based on reality -- so develop an eye for noticing sparks of potential in others. Be enthusiastic in selling a person to himself. (From Rabbi Pliskin's book Kindness) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7. CoffeeWantAds Post your CoffeeWantAds FREE for the world to see. Buy, sell, or promote anything coffee-related. Beans, equipment, parts, jobs, advice; this is the place to promote! CoffeeWantAds is a free classified ad service and is for both commercial and residential coffee-related ads. You may post your ad by going to and hit the link to CoffeeWantAds. Most folks do not like wordy ad copy so keep your ad simple, and like a ristretto, short and sweet. You may include an image and a website url. You may also password protect your ad and change it as often as you like. What a price! What a deal! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Look at everything as though you were seeing it for the first time or the last time. Then your time on earth will be filled with glory." Betty Smith ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8. Starbucks in the News "A man and woman robbed a busy Starbucks early yesterday morning and wound up serving coffee through the drive-up window for at least 30 minutes to make additional cash. They then waited until business slowed enough to make a getaway." For the rest of the article, go to link: Starbucks now has 5,368 stores and plans to add 1,200 more during their current fiscal year. Their sales for the first quarter of this year were $783 million, which earned $32.1 million in profit. That's a lot of milk! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "The most likely way for the world to be destroyed, most experts agree, is by accident. That's where we come in; we're computer professionals. We cause accidents." Nathaniel Borenstein ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9. Coffee Kids COFFEE KIDS has helped thousands of children, women, and men in coffee-producing regions in Mexico and Central America to improve the quality of their lives and build more sustainable communities. Founded by coffee roaster Bill Fishbein in 1988, Coffee Kids is an international nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization. Our staff works with local non-governmental community organizations in Latin America to create education, health-care, training, and microenterprise programs for coffee farmers and their families. Our projects respect the cultural integrity of our local partners, foster independence, and promote long-term self-sufficiency. What is Coffee Kids' mission? To improve the quality of life for children and families who live in coffee-growing communities around the world. Who founded Coffee Kids and when? Coffee Kids was founded in 1988 by Bill Fishbein, the owner of Coffee Exchange, a specialty coffee roaster and retailer in Providence, RI. That year, Bill had traveled to Guatemala and saw first-hand the connection between coffee farming and poverty. He created Coffee Kids as a way for coffee businesses and coffee consumers to give something back to the families who grow coffee. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, ambition inspired, and success achieved." Helen Keller ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 10. Links to My Friends Visit the links page on our website to get the latest links to both coffee related and unrelated sites of interest. You may now add your link at Check it out. You might find some old friends and make some new ones. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "The fireworks begin today. Each diploma is a lighted match. Each one of you is a fuse." Ed Koch ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 11. Feedback Tell me what you think. What do you want more of..less of...what would you change, add, or delete? ISSN: 1534-4614 - Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA This journal was made from 100% post-consumer, recycled, non-polluting, and non-trashcan filling electrons. (c) Copyright 2002 Robert L. Badgett. All Rights Reserved.

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