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Welcome to Badgett's Coffee eJournal
"All the Coffee That's Fit to Print"T
Issue No. 43 June 29, 2001

In This Issue:

1. Welcome
2. Some Words from Our Sponsors
4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe
5. Dear Editor- Comment on "Greenpeace vs. Coffee"
6. Too many good deeds?
7. Readers' Comments
8. Dear Robert
9. Ethiopia Sidamo and Sumatra Mandheling
10. Links to My Friends
11. Feedback


1. Welcome

Thank you for allowing me onto your screen.
A special thanks to all of you who have recently sent comments.
The topic of Fair Trade has generated many emails and I have
included them in this Issue. It's an interesting subject and I
realize there are many sides to the argument. If you would like
your viewpoint expressed, please contact me. I hope you gain
some understanding of the world coffee crisis that is happening
right now. None of us can change the world, but it's our duty to
do something to help make it better.

I almost didn't make it to your screen today. I had a little bit
of computer problem. I recently switched ISP's to a broadband
cable service and after installing the NIC card and software, my
computer didn't find one of my two hard drives. Thanks to my
sister-in-law, Ilene, who fixed the problem for me. It's nice to
have someone in the family who knows what she's doing.

Remember when you were nine years old and how you felt on the
last day of school? Wasn't it a great feeling? My son, Jacob,
just experienced that feeling and reminded me of those glorious
days of my youth. If you want to relive the past, concentrate on
the good stuff of your youth.

My goal with this journal is to promote good coffee. I want to
learn, educate, and entertain. I publish every other Friday via
email and readers include coffee consumers, home roasters,
coffee geeks, retailers, growers, roasters, equipment dealers,
and anyone else who shares our passion for our most wonderful
beverage. If you want to learn more about the fascinating world
of coffee, this is the place. I don't sell anything and
subscription is free.

If you want to advertise here or submit an article please
contact me for the ad rates and deadline schedule.

DISCLAIMER: All information contained here is obtained by
Badgett's Coffee eJournal from sources believed to be accurate
and reliable. Because of the possibility of human and mechanical
error as well as other factors, neither Badgett's Coffee
eJournal nor its publisher, Robert L. Badgett, is responsible
for any errors or omissions. All information is provided "as is"
without warranty of any kind.

To subscribe or unsubscribe, click here:
If you have problems with subscribing or unsubscribing, please
contact me directly.


2. Some Words From Our Sponsors


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"When you look at the world in a narrow way, how mean it is!
When you look at it selfishly, how selfish it is! But when you
look at it in a broad, generous, friendly spirit, how wonderful
you find it!" Horace Rutledge


In response to the current crisis in the coffee market
(see article below), We have decided to put all of our Fair
Trade coffees on SALE for a limited time. These coffees are not
only organic and delicious, they also support small farmers in
times of economic crisis. Please tell your friends and
associates about our sale and how they can help.

See our Fair Trade offerings at


(From the San Francisco Chronicle Sunday, May 20, 2001)

Mourning coffee: World's leading java companies are raking in
high profits but growers worldwide face ruin as prices sink to
historic low

La Reforma, Guatemala -- The cost of a single cappuccino in the
Bay Area is two bucks and rising, but you would never know it
from the misery on the mountainsides where those coffee beans
are grown.

For millions of impoverished farmers worldwide, coffee has
become a cruel business. Producer prices have plummeted in
recent months to an all-time low, while prices on the retail end
are mostly at an all-time high. For corporations profiting from
this ever-growing gap, things couldn't be better.

This is the dark side of coffee, the world's second-most-traded
commodity after petroleum.

In many coffee-growing countries, crisis is brewing.
International coffee prices have fallen by two-thirds since
1997, and no significant recovery is expected. The collapse has
worsened rural poverty, spurred immigration to the United States
and, in some areas, raised the specter of civil unrest.

In Guatemala, the world's seventh-largest coffee producer,
American java lovers' spending habits seem far away indeed.
Large farms, where the average wage is $3 per day, are laying
off workers in droves. The price decline's impact is even harder
at small farms - those with gross sales of less than $5,000
annually, which made up four-fifths of the nation's 63,000 farms
before the price crash.

Around La Reforma, a town in the southwest coffee region,
unemployment is rising fast.

"Go up and down the hills around here, and there are lots of
farms that have closed, not just mine," said Gonzalo Varillas,
who is laying off the last of the 80 workers on his 220-acre
coffee farm.

"Lots of people depend on me, but I can't continue to lose money
like this."

Varillas explained that, as with other growers in the area, it
costs him about $1 to produce each pound of arabica coffee and
send it to an exporting firm. In return, he is paid about 50
cents per pound.

Varillas' foreman, Oscar Mejia, who has worked at the farm for
26 years, can't make heads or tails of the new economic reality.
"They say the price of coffee is low, but in the United States
people pay lots of money for it, so I just don't understand
anything anymore," he said.

Over the past two years, Guatemala's annual coffee exports have
dropped in half, from $600 million to $320 million, and rural
unemployment has soared to an estimated 40 percent. Last month,
Finance Minister Eduardo Weymann warned that "the government
will be paralyzed" if new revenues are not found.

Some fear that the economic crisis could help undermine
Guatemala's 1996 peace agreement, which ended 36 years of war
between the government and leftist guerrillas. In the past few
months, groups of re-armed rebels have appeared around La
Reforma and several other coffee-growing areas, holding up buses
and trucks and making speeches about injustice.

According to a report issued last week by the international aid
agency Oxfam, similar trouble is occurring in many other nations
where coffee forms a large part of earnings and small farms
predominate - Nicaragua, El Salvador, Ethiopia and Uganda, to
name a few.

"The price slump . . . generates bumper profits for Nestle and
Starbucks, and is also intensifying poverty and fueling social
dislocation in the world's poorest countries," the report
stated. In Mexico, media reports say tens of thousands of people
who once made a living from coffee in southern Chiapas state
have migrated to the nation's major cities and the U.S. border.

John Talbot, a sociology professor at Colby College in Maine who
is an expert on the coffee industry, points out that a price
crash in the early 1990s bankrupted many coffee farmers in
Chiapas and led them to join the Zapatista rebels. At the same
time, across the globe in Africa, the same crash pushed Rwandan
coffee farmers into desperation, increased social tension and
may have been a factor behind the ethnic Hutu massacres of a
half-million Tutsis.

Today, the U.S. war against drugs in Colombia is being hindered
by the flood of thousands of out-of-work coffee growers and
workers to the southern jungles, where there is work in coca
farms and cocaine laboratories.

"In the long run, having such low coffee prices creates a lot of
chaos and instability around the world, which is not in the U.S.
interest," said Talbot.

He and other analysts say U.S. policy has helped cause the
decline of coffee prices.

In the late 1980s, opposition from the Reagan administration
forced the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement, a
decades-old, cartel-like pact between coffee producing and
consuming nations that guaranteed relatively high prices. After
the pact ended in 1989 and the market was deregulated, prices

At the same time, the World Bank and its cousin, the Asian
Development Bank, gave generous loans to Vietnam to plant huge
amounts of low-quality robusta coffee - in line with
international lending institutions' mandate to stimulate low-
cost production and end market inefficiencies.

The strategy succeeded with a vengeance, as Vietnam went from
being one of the world's smallest coffee producers to being
second-largest, after Brazil.

Vietnamese exports have tripled in the past five years, flooding
world markets and driving down prices. At the same time, Brazil
has created vast, mechanized plantations of robusta coffee in
the center of the nation, far from the damaging frosts that in
previous years often affected southern coffee areas and drove up
world prices.

The price decline of robusta beans - which are used in
inexpensive blends and instant coffees - also dragged down the
price of arabica beans, which are used for higher quality
blends. "Vietnam has become a successful producer," said Don
Mitchell, principal economist at the World Bank. "In general, we
consider it to be a huge success."

Although Mitchell acknowledges the damage to nations that cannot
compete with Vietnam's $1-per-day labor costs or Brazil's
mechanized plantations - such as Guatemala, with its $3-per-day
minimum wage - he said the losers must switch to farming other

"It is a continuous process. It occurs in all countries - the
more efficient, lower cost producers expand their production,
and the higher cost, less efficient producers decide that it is
no longer what they want to do," he said.

Many Guatemalan growers will have to uproot their coffee plants
and change to crops such as citrus or cardamom.

"People who aren't in agriculture don't understand how
complicated it is to be an efficient grower, or how hard it will
be for coffee growers around here to switch and make a go of
it," said Betty Adams, owner of a 419-acre farm near La Reforma.
She is likely to escape her neighbors' fate only because she
produces some of Guatemala's finest beans and thus receives a
premium price from foreign buyers.

Coffee growing nations are desperately floating rescue plans,
from the downright loopy to the merely impractical. In
Guatemala, the National Coffee Association has experimented with
burning coffee beans as a fuel - results were not announced, but
apparently Big Oil shouldn't worry about future competition.

Other Latin American nations want exporting firms to voluntarily
withhold 20 percent of the total crop in their warehouses, or to
destroy the 5 percent that is lowest quality. Coffee's decline
is part of a larger trend in international commodities trading,

In addition to its campaign to sink the International Coffee
Agreement, the United States also has helped abolish
international agreements regulating sugar, cocoa, tin and
rubber. Cocoa, sugar and rubber reached all-time lows earlier
this year, while cotton, soybeans, peanuts and other crops now
fetch less than they did a decade ago.

As a result, nations that cannot subsidize their farm sectors
are falling deeper into debt while their people get poorer.

Some analysts call Washington's policy hypocritical, preaching
free markets abroad but spending $26 billion annually on aid
programs that prop up nearly every domestic farm sector. Many
developing nations have complained that the U. S. subsidies lead
to dumping - selling abroad below production cost - and thus
violate World Trade Organization rules.

What's needed is a new version of producer-consumer price
agreements, a "global Roosevelt New Deal to ensure that farmers
get a fair price and have a level playing field," said Mark
Ritchie, president of the Institute for Agriculture and Trade
Policy in Minneapolis.

But any such solution would take place too far in the future to
help the people around La Reforma.

The region's residents, most of whom are Mayan Indians, tramp
the roads looking for work. They knock on gates and wait
patiently - the men holding their broad-brimmed hats in their
hands, the women clutching their shawls. The answer is always
the same. No one is hiring.

"Eating?" said Sebastian Alonso, one such job seeker, when asked
what he is able to provide for his family at dinner. He thought
for a long moment, his eyes blank. "Tortillas, some salt, some
hojasanta," he said, referring to a common herb. "That's all."

"What's happening is a catastrophe," said Dr. Alfredo Cordon,
the only medical doctor in the La Reforma municipality, which
has 16,000 residents. "There's always been poverty and temporary
unemployment, but I've never seen real hunger like I do now -
people who literally have nothing to eat but tortillas."

To learn more about Fair Trade, and how it helps small farmers
in these times of crisis, visit:

"The height of your accomplishments will equal the depth of your
convictions. Seek happiness for its own sake, and you will not
find it; seek for purpose and happiness will follow as a shadow
comes with the sunshine." William Scolavino

4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe
-Words and condensation by Tzvi Freeman

Wasting Life on Purpose

Once you have found the meaning of life, will there be enough
life left to live meaningfully?

Better to live life as meaningfully as you know how, and find
more meaning as you go along. You will gain and so will those
you influence.

Brought to you by

"Don't wait for all the lights to be green before you leave the
house." Jim Stovall

5. Dear Editor- Comment on "Greenpeace vs. Coffee"

In a recent edition, a reader complained that Badgett's Coffee
eJournal was more like a Greenpeace newsletter than a coffee
journal. I would argue that that is a selling point, not a
criticism. Unlike other "industry" newsletters, your journal
recognizes that no product exists in isolation from its source,
or from the people whose lives are impacted by its creation.

Even if "all" someone is interested in is how to find the best-
tasting coffee, they will need to know where it comes from and
how it's grown. These questions cannot be answered with latte
recipes and advertisements for new grinding equipment.

Coffee taste and quality quickly becomes a discussion of
geography, agricultural practices, expertise, technology, and
price. And these in turn reflect national, regional, and
international politics, markets, trade and tariffs, and
competition and business acumen.

Simply put, coffee is a very people-intensive product. In
addition to the farmers who grow and pick it, there are millions
of people around the world involved at all levels- in
cultivation, processing, transport, trade, roasting, marketing,
and sipping of coffee.

And it is precisely these people who make specialty coffee
distinct from the Folgers of the world, and thus create the
multi-billion dollar industry that provides our livelihoods --
not to mention our daily brew.

Their know-how, craftsmanship, and dedication to producing a
superior product are inseparably related to their environment
and culture. That some people protest when such issues are
discussed highlights the fact that so few other industries are
willing to discuss the people and environments that are effected
by their production processes. It also reflects a basic lack of
understanding about what makes specialty coffee -- and the
people who produce it -- special.

April Pojman
Thanksgiving Coffee Company

"There's nothing in the middle of the road but yellow stripes
and dead armadillos." James Hightower

6. Too many good deeds?
by Claude Lavigne

In this nice newsletter from Robert, we can read about a lot of
coffee related topics, including the more "social" aspects of
the subject, and that is what brings me to write for the Coffee

I am no coffee expert. I don't think I could, by taste only,
distinguish similar roasts from two different countries. I use a
very ordinary and moody Phillips pump to extract what's supposed
to be espresso, and a 15 year-old Braun (I did replace the
stones, last year!) that I hold firmly while grinding, to keep
it from dancing on the counter top and in the vain hope of
getting a more uniform grind. But I did find a blend that I like
more than others, that I bring home freshly roasted from a small
shop in Montréal.

My expertise would rather lie in worrying about the health of
this planet we live on, and of most of its inhabitants. I am not
against globalisation, but am very worried to see it organised
behind closed doors. I am worried when I learn (through what
leaks out) that globalisation is geared towards giving
corporations and/or investors all the rights, including
"rearranging" any country's policy on whatever could affect
their profit margins. Anyone can already find examples of such

A few months ago I wrote for a web site an article on Fair Trade
coffee that Robert was willing to include here, but since most
of what I was talking about in that paper has been pretty well
covered in here (thanks again Robert, and those who wrote about
Fair Trade), I chose to write especially for this newsletter,
about what I hold dear in the Fair Trade concept (if you're
interested in that article and the saga that followed its
publication, you can find it on

Let me only summarize the main points of what Fair Trade is:

The coop selling Fair Trade coffee must be independent and
democratically controlled by its members. No discrimination is
allowed, either political, racial, religious or sexual.

Production must be or on the way to be ecologically
sound:leaving the trees alone, growing diversified crops,
foregoing chemical pesticides or fertilizers.

Within long-term contracts, the producer is allowed to
borrow under reasonable interest rates up to 60% of the contract
value. Income must be reinvested in the community, to allow
people to take control of their social and economic development.

And central to the Fair Trade concept is the price paid to
the grower: us$1.26 a pound, instead of the $0.60 to $0.90 very
volatile, decided elsewhere market price. Most of the
intermediates in the coffee market are out of the way, the
roaster buys direct from the producing coop, or from a central
distributing coop for the really small roaster. The price at
our end is the same because the middlemen (local "coyote",
exporter, brokers, importer, processing plant) are out.

Anyone worrying about something will try to do something about
it, yes? The only worthy action I found to act on what worries
me is voting with my money. I know that many of you think the
same. So the environmentalist will buy Organic coffee, the bird
lover will buy bird friendly Shade Grown coffee, the anti-
globalisation person will buy Specialty coffee, etc, etc. Too
many good deeds to choose from?

Like these people I care about the environment. But my biggest
worries go to the endless-profits market-dictator (bashing at
the environment), and to the lack of collectivity around here.
It's everyone for himself, wanting more and more stuff, actively
living the "not in my backyard" syndrome.

I personally think that the third world is what it is because we
occidentals think we are the first world. I sincerely think
slavery still exists, because of the way we live. We plunder via
big corporations the poorer country's resources to maintain our
nice living standard. I have been hurt by people in my town -
where I try promoting Fair Trade coffee- not giving a damn: "let
them get out of the hole, it's not my problem", I've been told.
They actually *want* slaves down south: it makes for very cheap
coffee -and cocoa, tea, sugar, bananas, pineapples, oranges...

So when I vote with my money, I buy from small companies, in
small shops (haven't you noticed that small grocery stores have
disappeared from small villages? Now we need a car to get to the
ultra super market, where someone 300km away decides what this
town likes).

And from the sea of coffee labels, appellations and
certifications, I choose Fair Trade, let me try and explain why.

I could take a shortcut and say that the Fair Trade label
includes all of the others (Shade grown, Organic) but it's not
quite true. What Fair Trade insures is that the production *is*
or *on the way to be* Organic and Shade Grown. And there is a
very important distinction to be made here:

Some Fair Trade coffees are actually Organic coffees, without
bearing the Organic Certification. For a very simple reason: the
Organic certification costs the producer a lot, without insuring
him quite the price he would get for Fair Trade. From what I
know, Organic Certification brings the producer only a little
more than market price for his coffee, I see that as only
another way of keeping him colonized.

On the other hand, the Fair Trade certification fee is assumed
by the buyer, not by the producer. And since the source of the
coffee gets evaluated in the certification process, I doubt many
sun grown, hybrid, DDT sprayed coffee gets in the Fair Trade
chain. At least that's what I learn from my readings and from my
supplier, whom I trust.

Another reason for me to prefer the Fair Trade "good deed" is
its application to other stuff. At Café Rico in Montréal I not
only buy my favorite Fair Trade coffee blend, but also tea,
cocoa, chocolate, sugar, nuts. I can't wait to find bananas,
pineapple, oranges...

In my search for work (I am on welfare, studying to get a nice
diploma saying I know what I already do, to comfort the eventual
employer who won't trust anything else than a diploma) I swear
to myself that I won't go work for the anti-personal mine
manufacturer, the bomb maker if you will. But the line is hard
to draw: if I work for the explosive maker, is it ok with me? If
I work for some company that has money invested in the bomb
maker, is it ok?

The surest way for me to get around that puzzle is finding ways
to help making sure that there is no NEED for bombs. Fair Trade
is one way I think can help get us there. No, I'm not leaping. I
could cite if only Colombia or Chiapas, but every war on this
planet profits someone (and I won't trust mainstream media to
tell me who that is!). By voting with our money against careless
profits, by voting to treat everyone Fairly, we could become
better tenants of this place. And I believe our living standard
would only be higher.

"If you have the will to win, you have achieved half your
success; if you don't, you have achieved half your failure."
David Ambrose

7. Readers' Comments

Hi Robert,

I guess I agree with a few others who have given opinions-
Less greenpeace and more Coffee specifics(roasting, tasting,
expresso-ing, etc...) would be nice. But keep up the good
work nonetheless!



Dear Robert,

I'm going to add my 2.5 cents on why "social responsibility" and
"fair trade" are an important part of coffee consumption. These
two phrases generate a cynical response, yet they are truly
important to the future of coffee production. Without the two,
we are destine to suck down grade b frankencoffee.

Fair Trade is hardly an abstract concept. A fair price is paid
to the farmer to insure their livelihood can continue....seems
quite cut and dry. It is a form of "social responsibility." As
consumers of the world's third largest commodity, we owe it to
ourselves to embrace and acknowledge the history of the coffee
we drink. We live in a time of catch phrases and marketable
claptrap, some of which offer little more than fodder for
advertisements. The litmus tests of such terms are found. "Fair
Trade" and "Certified Organic" are examples of meaningful terms.
I urge everyone to overcome the cynicism voiced by Rick in his
recent letter.


Dear Robert,

Thanks for another great issue. I have a few ideas and
comments. I would love to see more info on origins. Also I
would love an informal poll of what is the readership's favorite
origins and roast levels, etc. I enjoy the integrated approach
to the journal. Issues such as songbird habitat conservation
and a fair price paid to farmers are sides of the coffee issue
that I had not considered much before. It seems to me that if
all of us coffee drinkers want to keep searching for the next
great coffee than we also need to educate ourselves on the
politics at the farm level. I am alarmed that farmers are not
compensated enough for their coffee growing efforts to continue
growing, or are considering leaving the beans on the trees
because the price paid for coffee is so low that it is too
difficult to pay pickers. I want good coffee and I am willing
to pay more for it especially to ensure that I don't have to
drink cheap canned crap.

Thanks a million

"Better a critical editorial than a praiseworthy obituary."
Golda Meir

8. Dear Robert,

Just want to let you know that I have enjoyed your coffee
journal newsletter from the first issue. When it's in my mail
box I always go there first. I save them also, because I don't
always have the time to read them thoroughly. Sometimes I read
all the articles and sometimes just skim over others. I always
find something that interests me.

I began coffee roasting seven years ago and learn something new
everyday. I do not consider myself an expert, however, I am
"Madam Coffee" to my customers.

My passion for quality coffees is evident to anyone who talks to
me on the subject. I am always up for the "perfect cup" whether
it is something I roasted myself or checking out the

Of course, I am always thrilled when the coffee I roast is
praised. I always encourage people to try different coffees to
find what they like best. Not everyone likes all flavors of ice
cream either. My customers know very little except what they
like and I have a hard time getting them to carry different
coffees. Some have caught on and expanded the coffee varieties
they offer to their customers.

Like so many other things the coffee industry has become so
advertised that the first question I get is "Do you have
Columbian?" Of course I do, but, at any given time I also have
10 to 15 other varieties that you should try.

To me the specialty coffees I enjoy are like the first ripe
tomato in my garden.(How many people really know what that is
like?) Now I understand why my grandfather insisted on fresh
roasted coffee every morning!

Our quality of life is determined by all the little pleasures we
have day to day. For some it may be sports, wine, chocolate, or
a combination of things. Two of mine are quality coffee and
Badgett's Coffee eJournal.

I encourage everyone to investigate the possibilities. If you
have a local roaster, you should check them out. There is no
package anywhere that can compare. Your efforts will be

Thanks again Robert for allowing all views to be expressed.

Florene Hardigree, aka "Madam Coffee"
Magnolia Coffee Market, Pearl MS

"Science may have found a cure for most evil; but it has found
no remedy for the worst of them all -- the apathy of human
beings." Helen Keller

9. Ethiopia Sidamo and Sumatra Mandheling
by Dean's Beans

Our coffee is from the Sidamo region of Ethiopia. The coffee is
collected by small farmers, cultivating on 1 to 5 hectare shaded
coffee farms. The coffee is called "Natural" Sidamo because it
is not "washed" (processed with water after harvest). Instead,
the beans are harvested and allowed to sun dry while still in
the coffee cherry. Once the cherry is completely desiccated, the
coffee is hulled and the bean is separated. Processing coffee in
this way is highly ecological as it does not require water and
consequently, does not contaminate the local water supply with
decomposing waste. The result of this sort of processing is a
sweet and fruity cup with exceptional body, very similar in
profile to the famed Yemen Mocha. While this coffee is not yet
certified as organically grown, for all intents and purposes,
this is an organically grown coffee. The certification process
is not yet in place in Ethiopia, however, the use of
agrochemicals in this most ancient of coffee growing regions is
nearly non-existent. In considering that this coffee is from
shaded coffee farms, not grown with agrochemicals, and is
naturally processed, it is perhaps the most ecological of all
coffees grown in the world.

We use this great coffee in our Marrakesh Express and Moka Java
blends, in Swiss Water Decaf we use it in Safari and Liberation!

Sumatra Mandheling

Our certified fair trade Sumatran is a classic Mandheling, grown
in the Takengon highlands of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia;
much of it in the buffer zone surrounding Gunung Leuser National
Park. The growers are part of two groups; the Gayo Mountain
group (the oldest organic group in Indonesia) and a new organic
farmer group organized by YPSI (an indigenous social foundation)
with the assistance of ForesTrade. The coffee grown on small,
shaded plots of 3-5 acres at over 1100 meters, and sun dried on
raised drying tables. A Coffee Kids project in the area
organized by Dean brought potable, running water to over 1,500
villagers. The coffee is certified organic by SKAL, a respected
Netherlands organization.

Our Sumatran is a singularly full, heavy-bodied coffee, very low
in acidity. It is a very hard bean that holds its
characteristics deep into the dark roast stage. We use it in our
Sumatran French Roast, Moka Java, Moka Sumatra (Dean's
favorite!), and Ring of Fire.

To learn more about our coffee and our work in the world, check
out our website,

Also, feel free to drop in to our farm-based roasting operation
here in New Salem, Massachusetts. Just follow your nose down the
road and you'll find us.

Dean's Beans * Hop Brook Farm * New Salem, Ma. 01355
(800) 325-3008 *

"Nothing is so exhausting as indecision, and nothing is so
futile." Bertrand Russell

10. Links to My Friends

Visit the links page on our website to get the latest links to
both coffee related and unrelated sites of interest. Check it
out. You might find some old friends and make some new ones.

"Inspirations never go in for long engagements; they demand
immediate marriage to action." Brendan Francis

11. Feedback

Tell me what you think. What do you want more of..less of...what
would you change, add, or delete?

Please direct all inquiries, comments, article submissions and
suggestions to: Robert Badgett

ISSN: 1534-4614 - Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA

This journal was made from 100% post-consumer, recycled, non-polluting, and
non-trashcan filling electrons.

(c) Copyright 2001 Robert L. Badgett. All Rights Reserved.

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