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Welcome to Badgett's Coffee eJournal
"All the Coffee That's Fit to Print"T
Issue No. 36 March 23, 2001

In This Issue:

1. Welcome
2. Some Words from Our Sponsors
3. Fair Trade Certified by TransFair USA
4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe
5. Anatomy of American Dr. Joseph John
6. Fair Trade Coffee Sources
7. Reader's Comment: Help with espresso blends!
8. Uncommon Grounds and Fair Trade Coffee
9. Malinal Estate Coffee from Mexico
10. ORCA Responds to OCA's "Frankenbucks" Campaign
11. After the Green Coffee Arrives
12. Links to My Friends
13. Feedback


1. Welcome

Welcome, my friends, and thank you for subscribing.

Long issue this week, so grind a batch and start brewing because
you might need a cup or three to get through it. I should give a
prize to anyone who reads the whole issue. I really appreciate
the kind folks who share their experience, thoughts, and
expertise with us. The coffee world is so fascinating and
diverse, and we are fortunate to have experienced coffee
professionals who are willing to teach us their craft.

The SCAA Conference & Exhibition takes place April 20-23 in
Miami Beach. There will be about 8,000 coffee folks in
attendance, so if you're going, you'd better get started now. If
any of you would like to write about your experience at the
conference, please contact me. Those of us who cannot go would
really enjoy hearing about it. For more info:

In the last issue (#35), I published a list of 29 Internet links
of green coffee sellers. I left out two that I want to include
today, and Give these
nice folks a visit and tell them Robert says howdy. Contact me
for Issue #35 if you didn't get it.

I also asked you to forward the issue to your friends and many
of you must have done it, because we've had lots of new
subscribers. I thank you for your efforts in helping me spread
the word. The more readers we have, the more knowledge and
expertise we can draw from, so please continue your kind help.

I have summarized the first ten issues on the Past Issues page
of my website, so click on and check it out. I'm
working on the rest of the issues, so come back often to see
what topics you have missed. We're working on an automatic email
form for ordering past issues but for now, please just email me
to request the issues and I'll forward any you need.

Home Roasters, now's your chance to get the Alpenrost at the
best price I have ever seen on the Internet. Check out the ad in
this issue.

My goal with this journal is to promote good coffee. I want to
learn, educate, and entertain. I publish every other Friday via
email and readers include coffee consumers, home roasters,
coffee geeks, retailers, growers, roasters, equipment dealers,
and anyone else who shares our passion for our most wonderful
beverage. If you want to learn more about the fascinating world
of coffee, this is the place. I don't sell anything and
subscription is free.

If you want to advertise here or submit an article please
contact me for the ad rates and deadline schedule.

DISCLAIMER: All information contained here is obtained by
Badgett's Coffee eJournal from sources believed to be accurate
and reliable. Because of the possibility of human and mechanical
error as well as other factors, neither Badgett's Coffee
eJournal nor its publisher, Robert L. Badgett, is responsible
for any errors or omissions. All information is provided "as is"
without warranty of any kind.

To subscribe or unsubscribe, click here:
If you have problems with subscribing or unsubscribing, please
contact me directly.


2. Some Words From Our Sponsors

Want the world's best coffee beans fresh-roasted, vacuum-sealed
for freshness, and delivered to your home or office?

Sterling Moon Specialty Coffees offers 88 choices of superior
gourmet coffee...flavors, varietals, espressos, and our
exclusive Signature Blends. We also offer coffee clubs and
frequent buyer discounts. Not sold in stores anywhere; our
coffee sits only on your shelf!

Visit us at for secure ordering.


Gourmet Beef & Turkey Jerky

Are you disappointed with that inferior jerky that you find in
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Try real Gourmet Jerky. Try CHIRICAHUA BRAND.
The very finest hand trimmed hand cured, hand smoked from
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Check it out at


Custom Imprinted Coffee Mugs
Fast Delivery - Competitive Pricing
For Details Call Doxpress: 800-999-3676


The Rainforest Alliance would like to announce the publication
of the updated ECO-O.K. Coffee Activist's Kit. For the dedicated
activist to concerned coffee drinker, this kit provides handy
tools for promoting alternative coffee choices, such as
conservation or shade-grown production that benefits workers and

To order a copy, please visit the Rainforest Alliance Web site

"Give us clear vision, that we may know where to stand and what
to stand for--because unless we stand for something, we shall
fall for anything." Peter Marshall

3. Fair Trade Certified by TransFair USA

Fair Trade guarantees fair prices to Third World farmers who are
currently disadvantaged in conventional trading conditions. Fair
Trade encourages family farmers to get organized, start their
own export cooperatives and sell their harvest directly to
importers rather than middlemen.

Through direct trade, fair prices, access to credit, and
environmental stewardship, Fair Trade helps farming families
improve their nutrition and healthcare, keep their kids in
school, and re-invest in their farms.

Today, world coffee prices are at their lowest point in over 7
years and thousands of coffee farming families are unable to
meet their costs of production and are losing their farms. By
supporting Fair Trade, you are vitally supporting the producers
who grow your excellent coffee, thereby lending greater
stability to the industry as a whole.

TransFair USA is the only non-profit certification organization
for Fair Trade products in the US. TransFair's certification
label on a package indicates that every step in getting your
coffee or tea from crop to cup has been monitored and certified
to ensure the farmers earned a fair price.

Currently 95 coffee and tea companies offer a Fair Trade option.
And consumers can find Fair Trade Certified products in over
7,000 retail locations across the country. Please check out our
website to learn where you can find Fair Trade Certified

Look for the Label--Proof your coffee or tea was responsibly

"It's not that Israel is being provocative; Israel's being is
provocative." George Will

4. A Daily Dose of Wisdom from the Rebbe
-Words and condensation by Tzvi Freeman


Working for a living is good. It's the anxiety over making a
living that is not good.

Don't let your inner self get involved in your business. That
inner self must be preserved for fulfilling your purpose in
life. Making lots of money is not your purpose in life.

Brought to you by

"All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men
do nothing." Edmund Burke


Wholesale coffee products made available to the general public.

Alpenrost home roaster only $249.00, save $100.00.

Grade 1 green beans South America and Africa only $2.95 per lb.
No minimum.

Chicory spice 1 lb. Bag only $7.95.

Roasted coffee, World roast, Special Roast, Preferred Espresso
Blend or Hawaiian Kauai all only $5.99 per 12 oz. Bag. Faema
rebuilt espresso machines and parts, all kinds of used coffee
Email us at or visit our web sites:

Over 12 years in business, We also set up Franchise coffee carts
and cafe build-outs. Call 24hrs, 7 days a week 1-800-649-0617
(all items subject to prior sale)

"Be absolutely determined to enjoy what you do." Gerry Sikorski

5. Anatomy of American Espresso
by Dr. Joseph John

Although its origin lies overseas, espresso has captured North
American consumers' fancy over the last 20 or so years. One
cannot walk two blocks in any city in the U.S. or Canada without
passing a coffee store or café that claims to make espresso.
Espresso and its milk-based cousins--cappuccino, latte--are

But espresso connoisseurs familiar with Italian caffe complain
that more than 95 percent of the espresso in North America is
poorly made, and, in fact, undrinkable. Instead of being the
essence of coffee it is supposed to be, the average espresso is
weak, watery, bitter, burned, without aroma, unpleasant, and
generally unsatisfying.

Over 95 percent of espresso beverages consumed in North America
are milk-based; this alone seems to justify bad espresso. The
addition of milk and syrups, however, may hide bad espresso, but
they don't make it better. Imagine how much more flavorful a
latte would be if the underlying espresso tasted better.

Definition of Espresso

Original Italian espresso is about one ounce of a dark, smooth,
heavy-bodied, syrup-like, aromatic, bittersweet coffee drink
topped with a thick, reddish-brown foam of tiny bubbles. It is
not just six times stronger than a cup of coffee, as may be
implied by the smaller volume; the foam, or crema, that captures
the intense coffee flavors is as important as the liquid coffee

In more technical terms, espresso is a colloidal dispersion
produced by emulsifying the insoluble oils in ground coffee.
These oils don't normally mix with water. But under intense
pressure (9-10 bars) generated by commercial espresso machines,
oils are extracted from ground coffee, formed into microscopic
droplets, and suspended in liquid coffee concentrate. If strong
coffee was all that was required, using less water in a drip
brewer in place of costly espresso machines would do the trick.

It is this emulsification of oils that distinguishes the
espresso from strong coffee. It markedly alters properties of
the beverage in terms of its mouthfeel, density, viscosity,
wetting power, and foam-forming ability. Volatile vapors
produced during espresso extraction hold coffee's aroma and are
captured in tiny bubbles of the crema. These aroma molecules,
later released in the mouth as espresso is consumed, find their
way to the nose through the pharynx. These oil droplets also
attach themselves to the taste buds and slowly release volatile
compounds until after the espresso is long gone.

This is why the crema is so critical. If there is no crema, the
oils in ground coffee have not been emulsified, and, hence, it
is not an espresso, but merely a strong coffee. Crema,
therefore, is the most critical indicator of a well-made
espresso. And rightly so.

What is remarkable about a properly made espresso is that the
maximum flavor is extracted from ground coffee while much of the
caffeine and excess acids are left behind. The high pressure at
which extraction is done and the small volume of water passing
through ground coffee account for this feat.

Commercial espresso machines deliver to the portafilter a
measured amount of near boiling water at a pressure of 9-10
bars. If coffee in the portafilter is coarsely ground and/or
loosely packed, water will gush out in a couple of seconds
without extracting enough solubles from the coffee. By grinding
the coffee finer and packing it tighter in the portafilter, flow
is impeded and water is forced into the coffee particles to
extract more of the soluble materials. The resulting strong
coffee takes about 15 seconds to produce.

When coffee is ground even finer and packed still tighter, the
process is slowed further. Hot pressurized water penetrates the
interior of coffee particles and spends its energy driving out
minuscule oil droplets in addition to extracting the solubles.
This produces a real espresso. In this process, hot water
dissipates most of its energy in the ground coffee and has to
ooze out of the portafilter under gravity. It takes roughly 30
seconds for this extraction.

If the process takes much longer, water spends more time in
contact with ground coffee and causes undesirable acids and
caffeine to go into the solution, producing an overextracted,
bitter espresso. If dosing and packing is held steady, the "shot
time" is a practical way of monitoring the extraction process.
The fineness of the grind controls the shot time.

What Is Wrong With North American Espresso?

Much of the blame falls on improper or inadequate training of
the barista, the person working behind the espresso counter.
Other contributors to disappointing espresso quality include
poor choice of coffee beans, improper roasting and blending for
espresso, stale coffee beans, incorrect grinding, dosing, and
packing of the portafilter, and a limited understanding of the
percolation process. Of these the most serious errors are made
in the final processes--the grinding, dosing, packing, and
extraction--that occur in the retail environment. Unfortunately,
this is also where most consumers are learning about this new,
somewhat foreign, beverage.

In most cases, baristas do not grind coffee fine enough nor tamp
it with sufficient force, thus allowing water to gush through
the ground coffee in less than 15 seconds and often as quickly
as seven seconds. Coffee so produced is watery and no oil is
emulsified. Worse yet, if shots are made that quickly, all
blends, regardless of their quality, yield equally undrinkable

North American baristas also err in another important way by
running too much water through the grounds, making espresso
diluted, watery, over-extracted, and bitter. Instead of offering
the aromatic essence of coffee in a ristretto, with lots of
flavorful crema, the barista caters to the consumer who prefers
the watery version, believing that "bigger is better."

Coffee chemistry is counterintuitive. The sweet, desirable
components in ground coffee are highly soluble in water and are
extracted by the first ounce or so flowing through it. Running
additional water through the same ground coffee does not extract
more coffee flavors; there is not much remaining there to

Less-desirable components, such as bitterness, caffeine and
acids, are not as soluble in water, and only a small portion is
extracted by the first ounce. Running more water through the
grounds extracts more of these undesirable components.
Surprising as it may seem, strong, syrupy espresso is sweet, and
the diluted, watery version is bitter.

Making the Perfect Espresso

If a majority of baristas are now doing it incorrectly, is there
a better way to produce quality espresso? Yes indeed! The
prescription is actually quite simple. Dose and pack the
portafilter exactly the same way every time and adjust only the
fineness of the grind to maintain a constant extraction time of
about 30 seconds. Details follow.

Once each day, make sure the espresso machine is functioning
properly, dispensing a little more than 2 oz. of water (for a
double shot) at a temperature of 195-200 degrees Fahrenheit and
a pressure of 9-10 bars. Portafilter baskets designed for single
espresso shots seldom function properly, so I recommend using
the "double basket." Ensure your grinder burrs have sharp edges
to finely shave the roasted beans instead of crushing them.
Grinder performance is very critical.

Periodically rinse and season the portafilter by running hot
water through it when empty to reach operating temperature, then
wiping it dry. Dose and tamp the basket as described below and
draw an espresso. Discard this "seasoning" shot. Thereafter,
it's not necessary to rinse the portafilter after each shot.
Wipe it clean and dry it with cloth or paper.

Now you need to adjust the grind. Start by choosing a grinder
setting and grinding enough beans to flush out the previously
ground coffee in the chute. Discard. Do not use the doser for
these initial settings. To conserve test beans, grind just
enough coffee to fill the portafilter basket. You may have to
pull the doser handle many times to get all the ground coffee
out of the doser hopper.

Dose coffee into the portafilter up to the rim using a wooden or
plastic spatula to shave off the excess. If the basket is
properly designed, ground coffee in the double basket will be
about 14-18 grams. Following an initial light tamp, tap the
portafilter once to dislodge all loose ground particles. Pack
the grind to the same force every time--between 30 and 50 lbs.--
and, if necessary, use a bathroom scale to measure. Pack it with
a final twisting motion of the tamper to polish the ground
coffee surface.

For machines with a preinfusion cycle, the first droplet should
appear 4-8 seconds after the switch for a "short double" is
turned on. Watch the pour; it should ooze out like warm honey,
not gush out like water. Turn off the switch as the brew turns
lighter, indicating overextraction. Time the length of the pour
from the moment you turned on the switch.

Adjust the grind until it takes about 30 seconds to deliver the
espresso shot. If the shots take less than 30 seconds (from the
time the switch is turned on), the grind is too coarse and needs
to be made finer. If it takes longer, the grind is too fine and
will have to be made coarser.

It is not uncommon to have to adjust the grind setting four or
five times a day, depending on location and weather conditions.
Make these adjustments slowly, one step or notch at a time. Each
time remember to discard the ground coffee in the chute, grinder
and doser hopper.

The doser may be adjusted to dispense the correct amount of
ground coffee, 7-9 grams for a single shot and twice that for a
double. Unfortunately, for the doser to work properly, the
ground coffee hopper has to be half-full. This is acceptable

Choosing an Espresso Blend

Most retailers do not roast or blend their coffees and are
dependent on a wholesale roaster to supply espresso blends for
their use. It's important to purchase fresh-roasted beans every
week and buy only a week's supply at a time so they are always
fresh. The roasting date must be stamped on the bag so the
freshness is obvious.

If the roaster believes that beans have to be dark-roasted and
oily to be in an espresso blend, look for a different roaster.
This shows a limited understanding of coffee bean
characteristics and even less about espresso.

If the average espresso extraction time for a retail store is
less than 20 seconds, all shots will be watery and bitter, and a
higher-quality blend isn't going to make a difference. A cheap
blend will suffice; no reason to waste money.

However, if you make the effort to produce a proper espresso,
you should select a blend that is consistent with the quality of
espresso the customers deserve. Check the blend's performance
drawing actual espresso (making brewed coffee to test espresso
beans is a meaningless exercise). The physical properties, such
as color, body and crema, and the flavor characteristics, such
as aroma and taste, must be appropriate and in proper balance.
Most blends focus entirely on flavor and perform poorly on
color, body and crema. The flavor should be clean and well
defined from a single coffee or two, built on a muted base.

The crema should be reddish brown, velvety, plentiful, rich, and
persistent, lasting many minutes before it breaks in the middle.
Linger over the cup as the crema releases the aroma of freshly
ground coffee. Taste it straight, without sugar or milk. Note if
it is mellow, smooth and sweet, with lots of body and low
acidity (high acidity is not a desirable feature of a quality
espresso). It should contain no unpleasant bitterness and not
even a hint of sourness. Check its finish. Observe how long the
aftertaste lingers in the mouth; it should be pleasant if the
experience is to be memorable.

Most retailers in North America can provide a much better
quality espresso and espresso beverage to the consumer without
major investments. It takes a better understanding of the
espresso process and improved training of their employees. That
the consumer is not demanding a better espresso is not a good
excuse. As was learned in the wine industry, delicious espresso
will promote coffee drinking, and bad espresso will hurt the

Dr. Joseph John is president of Josuma Coffee Co. in Menlo Park,
Calif., and designer of Malabar Gold, the company's Premium
European Espresso. He can be reached at 650/366-5453 or by e-
mail at

Fresh Cup Magazine is a trademark of Fresh Cup Publishing
Copyright © 1995-1997--All Rights Reserved.

Fresh Cup Magazine / 1-June-2000

Reprinted from the June 2000 issue of Fresh Cup Magazine, a
specialty coffee and tea industry publication based in Portland,
Oregon. For subscription information, call 503/236-2587 or visit
the Fresh Cup website at

"There's every sign that coffee will remain the country's
leading beverage forever." 1952 "Coffee Annual" Quoted in
"Uncommon Grounds" by Mark Pendergrast

6. Fair Trade Coffee Sources

Where to buy Fair Trade coffee?

Don't forget to tell these folks where you saw their link.

"Every man is guilty of all the good he didn't do." Voltaire

7. Reader's Comment: Help with espresso blends!

What I'd like to see more of: I've been on for a few
months now and have been frustrated by how much info there is on
equipment and how little there is on beans appropriate to
espresso. I have tried a lot of beans, and it's my opinion that
there are not more than a handful of roasters who are making
blends that I find acceptable for producing a good, strong
ristretto with body, crema and taste. I had expected to find
lots of talk about blends available by mailorder on,
but find almost nothing on the subject.


Note from Robert: Any help from our readers to help Richard?
Please send your replies and advice and I'll publish a follow up
in future issues.

"Always leave something to wish for; otherwise you will be
miserable from your very happiness." Baltasar Gracian

8. Uncommon Grounds and Fair Trade Coffee

Uncommon Grounds was responsible for introducing Fair Trade
Coffee to the Berkeley area. We brought the issue to mayor
Shirley Deans' attention 2 years ago. She in turn brought a
resolution to the Berkeley City council saying that the City
would only purchase Fair Trade, Shade Grown, Organic coffees.
It passed overwhelmingly. The cities of Oakland and San
Francisco followed suit and passed similar resolutions. Mayor
Dean credits Uncommon Grounds with raising her awareness on
these issues. Evening Magazine did a TV piece about us as well
as ABC Ch 7, Joel Bartlett. A number of news articles have
appeared as well in the past 2 years.

We just returned from a trip to fincas in Costa Rica and
Nicaragua to see for ourselves the impact of Fair Trade in these
times of plummeting coffee prices to the growers. It is
basically all they have to help them hold on to their farms at
this time. I could go on at length but that is a thumbnail
sketch about what we have been doing. Currently we carry 5
different Fair Trade coffees: Che Cafe Blend, Che Cafe Decafe,
Guatemalan, Nicaraguan, Costa Rican and Peruvian. We mail order
everywhere in the country.

Visit us at

"More die in the United States of too much food than of too
little." John Kenneth Galbraith

9. Malinal Estate Coffee from Mexico

Our Fair Trade coffee is Malinal Estate from Nayarit, Mexico.
From the coastal mountain range in the state of Nayarit, Mexico,
hails this incredible coffee. The coffee is shade grown and the
cafetaleros of El Malinal have a fair trade agreement with its
importer. This agreement has meant higher income for the coffee
workers and has enhanced motivation to produce superior quality
coffee. Malinal is assertive at first, with nut and chocolate
overtones. Its body is well-rounded, it is nicely balanced, and
the finish is incredibly clean. This coffee has characteristics
similar to our New Guinea and Colombian, but the acidity is a
little more pronounced.

White Horse Coffee & Tea Co., LLC

"He that waits to do a great deal of good at once will never do
anything." Samuel Johnson

10. ORCA Responds to OCA's "Frankenbucks" Campaign

From: Mark Inman

Date: Tuesday, March 13, 2001 2:07 PM
Subject: ORCA Response to OCA campaign.

Good morning all,
I just wanted to keep you updated on our response to the OCA.
Today (Tue, March 13) I had sent the following letter to Ronnie
Cummings of the OCA in response to their invitation to join
their "Frankenbucks" campaign. For those of you who are not
aware of this campaign, please go to and have a
I welcome your opinions and feedback to this response.
Mark Inman, President
The Organic Coffee Association (ORCA)

To: Ronnie Cummins
Organic Consumers Association

March 6th, 2001

Dear Ronnie,

After reading your most recent newsletter, I am saddened
and dismayed at the course of action that your group is taking.
As the President and co-founder of ORCA (the Organic Coffee
Association), which is a world wide coalition of certified
organic coffee growers, importers, exporters, roasters and
retailers, I must inform you that our association will not
sanction, nor participate in your action. Indeed, we must
recommend to our members that they boycott your action.

As a group, we are in agreement on nearly all of your points,
GE coffee is a significant threat, and roasters should take
pledges not to embrace such technology as it becomes available
(ORCA members are unable to use such coffees as a condition of
their organic certification)
Organic coffee production is viable, sustainable, and should
be encouraged worldwide
Global coffee prices are ridiculously low, well under the
cost of production
Actions by global coffee conglomerates are facilitating the
oppression and forced relocation of indigenous people in coffee
producing countries
Genetically altered or hormone contaminated food, including
milk, is a threat that consumers should be warned about in order
for them to choose what they eat.

These are laudable goals, and it was the inattention to these
issues by other coffee specific and organic-specific
organizations that sparked the genesis of ORCA.

Over the last year, however, we have learned some hard lessons
regarding how to address these problems. The first thing that we
learned was the reality of the coffee business. As ORCA
members, we are all working members of the coffee trade, who
simply believe that certified organic coffee is the most viable
and sustainable path for the industry to take. We learned (the
hard way) that we will not achieve our goals by attacking our
own membership - change must come from within.

The path that you are proposing is very hazardous, indeed it
threatens the long term realization of our mutual goals. We
have two main problems with your approach:

1. You have chosen Starbucks as your first target, mirroring
the failed attempt by Global Exchange. This is a hypocritical
move, and a tactical error.
2. You have chosen to align your movement with Fair Trade. We
humbly submit that you haven't done your homework.

Please learn from our experience! Here's our thoughts on each

#1. In your article, you state: "Currently four food giants
basically control the world's coffee supply: Procter and Gamble
(Folgers); Kraft/Phillip Morris (Maxwell House); Sarah Lee
(European brands), and Nestle (Hills Brothers)"

This is accurate. Therefore, these should be your targets!
Starbuck's may not be one of America's best loved brands, but
they are very popular with their consumer group. You are also
way off the mark if you think that they have the volume or
influence to make things happen with regards to world-wide
coffee supply. Starbuck's buys coffee with one goal in mind -
quality (see Fair Trade, below). In their quest for high-
quality coffee, they pay huge sums for coffee beans, usually
well over the $1.26 quoted by Fair Trade. It is a commonly
known fact in the coffee trade that Starbuck's buyers are some
of the most aggressive bidders around. Nearly all of our
roaster members have lost a coffee to Starbuck's at one time or
another. (ORCA membership is comprised of some of the industries
most knowledgeable and experienced buyers) The sweatshop
accusation simply doesn't stick. Pick another target - you will
get much better results.
Global prices are so low because the 4 companies referenced
above DO pay.30 cents for coffee. Starbuck's simply doesn't.

Do you find the big 4 "too big" to go after? Going after
Starbuck's will simply hurt the biggest buyer of specialty
coffee, one that pays well for quality coffee. What's the
point? Nobody has love in their heart for Phillip Morris.

#2. Fair trade coffee is not ready for prime time. Sorry, but
it is true.
The reason that Starbucks does not market it is that there isn't
enough of it that can pass even a minimum quality muster. Why?
Fair Trade is not indexed to quality. When you force a company
to buy Fair Trade, you send a message to farmers throughout the
world that coffee, regardless of quality, is worth $1.26/lb.
Global Exchange makes this statement proudly, and often. I
submit that Deborah James has never had to buy coffee which she
must then sell to consumers. Telling roasters (who you'll need
on board to make this work) that they must pay more, for an
inferior product, is the Fair Trade message to the industry.
This is not a market reality - and it never will be. You
cannot with good conscience subsidize a low quality product and
tell producers that this is sustainable. Sooner or later,
roasters will refuse to buy it, regardless of the activist
Coffee is a product whose prime consumer factor is quality - and
thus that must drive price. Price floors are an excellent idea,
but they must be indexed to quality. The Fair Trade economic
model has a fatal flaw when it comes to coffee. The coffee
industry wants to solve these problems, and we are being
prevented from finding a workable solution by the FT "bull in a
china shop" assault. Being loud and aggressive doesn't make you
Find another partner!

The Board and Membership of ORCA would encourage you to do the
following instead:

1. If you must campaign against Starbuck's - limit it to the
rBGH issue.
Admittedly, Starbuck's is a huge dairy consumer and purveyor.
We suggest that you should re-think the selection of Sbux as a
target at all, for now.
This company is doing the best it can in a difficult market -
let's give them a chance to do the right thing. There are a lot
more companies who flagrantly violate the will of the people,
and as such deserve to hear from the people. Let's bring it to

2. Organize and campaign against the "big 4". ORCA can offer a
creative solution for these brands - such as embracing
transitional organics, setting price floors, etc... As a trade
based group, we can work the "good cop" angle. If these
companies are given the space to take even one positive step, it
will make a huge difference.

3. Continue, as we do, to sound the alarm on GE coffee. The
best way to ensure this never happens is to continue to promote
certified organic coffee, as it prohibits the use of GE.

4. Work with us and other recognized industry groups to find a
way to address the social issues of coffee. The Specialty
coffee industry has been trying for years now to self regulate,
and the debate is at a high level now. What we need now is a
small screwdriver, not a hammer. We are so much farther along
than the clothing industry - and as such, we require a different
approach. Please don't set us back in our efforts!

5. Let's keep talking. ORCA is having a Board Meeting on April
18th in Miami, and we would welcome an OCA representative at our
gathering. I'm sure we have lots of knowledge that we could
share with each other.


Mark Inman
President and co-Founder
Organic Coffee Association.

"Let us so live that when we come to die even the undertaker
will be sorry." Mark Twain

11. After the Green Coffee Arrives
By: Harvey Hamilton

You've decided to start roasting your own coffee at home. You've
read the testimonials and have become convinced that there is no
better cup than a cup or shot of freshly ground, freshly roasted
coffee or espresso. After spending time researching the
offerings of a green coffee supplier, you've selected some
samples, gathered the necessary equipment and you're all ready
to go.except for one detail. How dark should these particular
beans be roasted? Are they best at a light, medium, or a very
dark roast?

First, we can take note of some general truths about the degrees
or stages of the roasted coffee bean.
1. Coffee in which the roast has been stopped too soon will
have a sour, plant-like taste. The color will be
very light brown and will have little or no aroma.
2. Coffee roasted at too low a temperature will have a bready,
baked taste. Flavor oils develop as the coffee roasts and as
internal temperatures exceed 390 degrees. Stopping the roast
too soon will stop the desired flavor as well.
3. Coffee grown at higher altitudes and consequently producing a
harder bean tend to sustain a darker roast better than beans
grown at lower altitudes.
4. Coffee roasted in the very dark Spanish roasts, (temperatures
exceeding 480 to 500 degrees) will have very little or no flavor
oil left in them and will have a burned or charcoal taste.

Coffee beans roasted between these two extremes are the most
commonly desired roasts. Let's take a look at the roast names we
use at The Green Bean Roastery and recommendations for the green
coffee we sell.

Very light in color, toasted or sour taste. I don't recommend
roasting any coffee to this stage purposely. It is undesirable
and only included here and discussed so as to avoid it.

Slightly darker in color. If you like this slightly sour but
not bready taste, try any of the selections. Personally, I
don't care for it and don't recommend it.

This is the roast where the distinctions or characteristics
associated with origin can be best tasted. If you are
considering blending and are looking for certain qualities,
acidity, fruity flavors, body, spiciness etc., to add complexity
or balance to a blend, start cupping here. Roast any of the
beans we sell at this roast.

This roast is near or just into the second crack stage.
Patches of oil start to show on the surface of the bean, body
increases and the taste starts to change to bittersweet. Again,
roast any of our beans at this roast.

Dark brown color with flavor oils on the surface exemplifies a
French roast. Commonly used for espresso or espresso-based
drinks, this roast has a rich, bittersweet flavor.

This roast is very dark brown; the surface of the bean will be
completely shiny. Flavor is deeply bittersweet.

Almost black, all the acidity is gone, body decreases, and has
a charcoal or burnt flavor. If you accidentally achieve this
roast, give it a try you may like it. I don't care for this
flavor no matter how it's brewed; I don't care for burned toast

Roast Recommendations

Sumatra Mandheling - City to Italian.
Kenya AA+ - City to Full City, roast French for espresso.
Guatemala Oriente Flores - City to Full City, roast French for
Sulawesi Toraja - City to Italian.
Timor Organic Maubesse - City to Italian.
Mexico Fino Rojas - City to Italian.
Ethiopia Yirgacheffe - City to French.
Colombia Supremo Popayan- City to Full City, roast French for
Nicaragua Selva Negra Estate - City to Full City, roast French
for espresso.
Kenya AB Decaf - City to Full City, roast French for espresso.


Suppliers of high quality green coffee beans to the home
roasting enthusiast.

"Think it more satisfaction to live richly than die rich."
Sir Thomas Browne

12. Links to My Friends

Visit the links page on our website to get the latest links to
both coffee related and unrelated sites of interest. Check it
out. You might find some old friends and make some new ones.

"Generosity is giving more than you can, and pride is taking
less than you need." Kahlil Gibran

13. Feedback

Tell me what you think. What do you want more of..less of...what
would you change, add, or delete?

Please direct all inquiries, comments, article submissions and
suggestions to: Robert Badgett

(c) Copyright 2001 Robert L. Badgett. All Rights Reserved.


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