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Welcome to Badgett's Coffee eJournal
"All the Coffee That's Fit to Print"
Issue No. 15 - September 1, 2000

In This Issue:

1. Welcome
2. Some Words from Our Sponsors
3. Shade Grown Coffee
4. Processing Coffee
5. Readers' Comments
6. Tech Stuff
7. Links to My Friends
8. Feedback


1. Welcome

Welcome, my friends, and thank you for subscribing.

Two great articles in this issue on shade grown coffee and
coffee bean processing. Makes you want to move south and become
a coffee grower. Not really, but at least we could visit some
coffee-growing regions on of these days. Okay, I promised not to
nag you about the Costa Rica trip.

The Readers' Comments section discusses the smut issue and Brad
Smith of Distant Lands Coffee Roaster shares his views on
"politically correct" coffee. Brad has promised more discussion
of the issue in the future and I look forward to his input. His
company is part of an organization that includes "Hacienda La
Minita" estate as well as "La Minita Coffee" importers. As
producers of coffees from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Colombia, and
Sumatra, he has excellent credibility in the coffee industry.

I welcome all viewpoints, so please share your thoughts with our
readers. We are here to learn about our most wonderful beverage.

Also some special deals for you in the coffee ads. Great prices
on both roasted and green beans, fundraising with coffee, and
granita machine repairs. Check them out and save some money
while you make new friends.

If you are like many coffee lovers, you started on this quest
for the best cup of coffee by graduating from canned coffee into
grinding your own beans. You bought roasted beans, ground them
just before brewing, and you probably thought at the time that
you had achieved coffee perfection.

Then you discovered home roasting and you are having more fun
and enjoyment than you ever thought possible a few years ago.

Now here's a suggestion to complete your hobby, grow your own!
Check out CoffeeProject's ad for coffee seedlings.

If you haven't visited my website lately, please take a quick
look. The Links Page has been updated. Also, I recently joined
the "Express Top 50" webring, which is a good collection of
coffee websites. Go ahead and hit the link, then come back here.

If you would like a past issue, please email me and I will send
it to you or anyone else.

My goal with this journal is to promote good coffee. I want to
learn, educate, and entertain. I publish every Friday via email
and readers include coffee consumers, home roasters, coffee
geeks, retailers, growers, roasters, and equipment dealers. If
you want to learn more about our most wonderful beverage, this
is the place. I don't sell anything and subscription is free.

If you want to advertise here or submit an article, contact me.
I don't charge for ads, links, or advice. My deadline for ads
and articles is Wednesday at 6:00 p.m., Eastern.

DISCLAIMER: All information contained here is obtained by
Badgett's Coffee eJournal from sources believed to be accurate
and reliable. Because of the possibility of human and mechanical
error as well as other factors, neither Badgett's Coffee
eJournal nor its publisher, Robert L. Badgett, is responsible
for any errors or omissions. All information is provided "as is"
without warranty of any kind.

To subscribe or unsubscribe, click here:

1.Some Words From Our Sponsors

Ahrre's Coffee Roastery's 'Back to School Special!'

Order a five-pound bulk package of any of my fresh-roasted
coffees (whole bean only!) and pay my wholesale price plus
shipping. This offer is insane!
But I'm making it good through the end of September 2000. For a
list of my coffees, please check-out my website, but.

.You must phone the order in (800-991-7977) mentioning Badgett's
Coffee eJournal.

Here are some examples of the available coffees and the prices
you'll be paying:

5 Pounds of French Roast = $18.95 + Shipping
5 Pounds of Colombian Supremo = $19.95 + Shipping
5 Pounds of Kenya AA = $22.95 + Shipping
5 Pounds of Sumatra Mandhelling = $19.95 + Shipping
5 Pounds of Hazelnut Creme (or any of my flavored coffees) $22.95 + Shipping

Shipping charges vary, but you'll pay exactly what I pay
Assume about $5.00 per 5-pound bag.

Coffee; because it's legal!


Coffee Wholesalers: Your Internet Source for Green Beans

Organic Guatemala Hue Hue Tenango Shade; Co-op Grown,
Smithsonian Bird Friendly; Current Crop, only $3.75 per pound.

Organic Colombia Mesa de Los Santos; Shade Grown, Smithsonian
Bird Friendly; Current Crop, only $4.10 per pound.

Organic New Guinea; A Grade, Shade Grown, Smithsonian Bird
Friendly; Current Crop, only $3.75 per pound.

Mention Badgett's Coffee eJournal to get a FREE 1/2 POUND
of green beans with every order of green coffee

For Great Deals on other Organic Beans, Roasted Coffee,
Chocolate, and Gift Baskets
Visit us at:


Grow Your Own Coffee at Home!

Coffee seedlings, grown from Kona seeds,

Only $5 each or 6 for $25.

What a great idea for a gift
Have them shipped directly to your coffee-loving friends.

Visit our website for details:


FUNDRAISING with A New Day Gourmet Coffee!

I offer 5 - trouble free programs for groups of all sizes to
raise funds selling my delicious gourmet coffee products. My
programs provide a full 50% profit on all sales with no surprise
costs, no minimums, and no shipping fees.

For more information, including samples of the forms and
products I use, please visit my site at or
call me toll free at 877-676-9756


Having problems with your espresso machine or frozen beverage
dispenser? Do you have a granita machine giving you problems? No
need to be frustrated.

Narrate your problem for quick solution.

Ask the Guru. Reply will be sent within 48 hours.
No purchase necessary. Just mention Badgett's Coffee eJournal


The eCoffeeShopTM at is your source for
anything and everything coffee: from beans to machines and
t-shirts to tumblers! We have over 200 products from 35
different merchants! Place an order during the month of
September and you'll be entered to win a copy of "The Joy Of
Coffee" and a biscotti and candy treat sampler from Coffee
Partner The Corner Bookcafe!
Visit us today at

"We could never learn to be brave and patient, if there were
only joy in the world." Helen Keller, 1890

3. Shade Grown Coffee
by Sonia Anaya, Elan Organic Coffee Company

Elan Organic Coffees supports shade-grown coffee as a means to
improve the income and diet of poor coffee farmers and restore
habitat diversity in tropical forests that are endangered by

What exactly constitutes a coffee plant grown in shade? And why
is it more ecologically beneficial than sun-grown coffee?
Coffee is commonly grown in two different ways: in shade or in
full sun.

Sun-grown coffee is produced on hybrid bushes that grow in
direct sun without any protection from taller trees. Growers
must supply these plants with agrochemicals (pesticides,
fertilizers, etc.). Consequently, most farmers who produce sun-
grown coffee are large growers with ample capital for costly
inputs. Those costs are offset by a more intense production and
higher yields per hectare than for shade-grown coffee.

Shade-grown coffee bushes grow under shade trees (vegetative
coverage). This process is a less-intensive, lower-yielding form
of cultivation than sun-grown coffee and may be divided into
three forms:
a) Conventional shade-grown coffee, which uses agrochemicals.
b) Natural shade-grown coffee, which uses neither chemicals nor
any specific technique to improve the plant condition nor the
environment. It is simply left to grow as it may without any
c) Organic shade-grown coffee, which does not use any type of
synthetic chemical, but is cultivated using special techniques.
There are different stages throughout the process and each stage
employs a special technique, such as improvement of the soil,
treatment for the plant, pruning of the plant and vegetative
covering, etc.

Approximately 80 percent to 90 percent of coffee comes from
small farmers who cultivate shade-grown bushes on one to three
hectares (about 2.5 to 7.5 acres) of land. This means that most
of the coffee we consume every day comes from very poor people
with small farms. By diversifying the shade-tree canopy, farmers
can enjoy a richer production from their land and the canopy
becomes a more diverse habitat for insects, plants and migratory

Coffee producers throughout Latin America use shade. There are
different types of shade.

In Mexico, for example, a great majority of coffee plantations
have a single type of shade tree (called monospecific shade or
monoculture) using Inga , locally called Chalum. In Guatemala,
Chalum shades are used as well as another type called gravilea.
Many Latin American producers plant other types of trees among
the shade trees, including banana, lemon, orange, avocado and
other fruit trees for personal consumption and for sale; this
type of shade is called commercial polyculture.

Farmers find many good reasons for using Inga (Chalum). The tree
develops rapidly and its plentiful leaves contribute as a
natural fertilizer when they fall to the ground. Its shade is
non-intense, permitting some sunrays to enter. Its broad canopy
shades a large area.

Most small coffee farmers in Latin America begin production by
clear-cutting land, usually forest or jungle, and planting corn
for personal consumption and sale. After two or more years of
corn production, they plant coffee because it is a relatively
good-paying cash crop that will earn them a profit. While
growing their corn crop, these farmers prepare the coffee bushes
and Inga trees for later planting, resulting in growth of the
same shade tree throughout their groves.

Throughout our years of contact with these farmers, we have
noticed that this monospecific shade is not the best shade for
coffee plantations and that harvests are better with another
type of shade, which is diversified. The concept of diversified
shade uses two or more layers or levels of shade trees and
different species of trees.

When small farmers first began using organic production
techniques and including them in the regulations for their
cooperatives, there was little emphasis on the type of shade
trees that should be used. Nevertheless, some small farmers have
improved the diversity of the shade of their coffee groves, but
this takes years. This has come from the personal initiative of
the farmers and from people and agencies providing technical
assistance, rather than through regulations established through
the organic certification process.

Continued Next Week

"Read the best books first, or you may not have a chance to read
them at all." Henry David Thoreau, 1849

4 Processing Coffee by Coffee Project

Whether picked by hand or by machine, coffee cherries have an
inherently wide range of ripeness, size, and density. In the
processing of coffee these differences are narrowed and refined,
resulting in grades of coffee. One major goal in processing and
grading the coffee is the uniformity of the beans for
consistency in roasting throughout the batch. Same weight, same
density, same size, etc.

Once the beans have been harvested, the very first choice is
between the wet or dry processing methods. In many locations
where there is a natural abundance or natural lack of available
water, the choice is easy. Good examples for discussing issues
in grading can be found in the basics of wet processing, so we
will focus there in this article.

Wet processing coffee begins with a ready supply of coffee
cherries and some water. The process is similar whether you are
working with a bucket in the backyard or on a 3400 acre
automated plantation.

Step One. Dump the beans in enough water that they either float,
or sink. Voila! You've just completed an important step in the
classification of the beans. The overripe cherries that you
don't want float on the surface, while the ripe cherries, plus
the immature beans, sink to the bottom. In a matter of moments
you have just separated all the overripe cherries out of the

Since we're going for high grade coffee here, we don't want to
be stuck with only ripe and under-ripe cherries. Collect all the
beans that have sunk and take them to station #2.

If you are automated you have something that looks like a very
wide exercise wheel for a gerbil called a "Green Ripe
Separator." It's a stationary screen with a rotating core. The
core has a couple ridges in it in a slow spiral similar to the
beater in your vacuum cleaner. As you feed the ripes and
immatures in the space between the core and the screen, the core
rotates, pressing the beans against the screen. The ripe
cherries get mushed through the bars while the under-ripe
cherries are too hard to mush and stay inside. Eventually,
because of the spiral, all the under-ripes get fed out the end
of the machine. Everything that was pushed through the cage that
is not a bean is called "mucilage" the sticky pulpy material,
and everything else outside the cage is a bean, now called
"parchment." The bean itself is a little like a pistachio at
this point, in that it is currently surrounded by a thin, close
fitting husk.

Moving along to the third point of separation is the
"classification channel." This is special, as it is our first
point of real classification. Here we have a recirculating
channel of water that immediately draws away the floating
mucilage while simultaneously moving and tumbling the parchment
along the bottom. The heaviest beans sink first, followed by the
lighter beans, so the beans naturally stratify into layers. Just
siphon off the bottom layer, which are the heaviest (best)
beans, and continue on to the "Criba."

The Criba is another gerbil-wheel like device but this one is
half submerged in water. A long wire tube slowly rotates, and
the heaviest beans we just collected are fed into it. This time
we're looking for a generalized size and to eliminate any other
floating material. This is also another chance for the beans to
fail a test. The beans we want will sink to the bottom of the
wheel and fall through the holes. Everything else gets washed
out the end of the machine. We are now able to work with first
quality coffee. Everything else is collected and sent to the
second quality line for its own processing.

Following the best beans to the next station, (which can
sometimes be skipped) we arrive at the fermentation tank. Here
the beans sit in water for about a day, where they ferment ever
so slightly. The natural bacteria present in the bean helps to
remove any remaining mucilage that is still sticking to the
beans. But be careful, there are lots of ways to ruin coffee,
and over fermentation is one of them. If you happen to be
automated, just step on over to your "Aquapulper" and let a
little bean on bean friction remove all that mucilage. Kind of
like a rock tumbler, the drained beans tumble around on
themselves for a short time and then are once again rinsed. You
should at this stage have clean parchment coffee ready to be

Next Week: Drying and Milling

Visit The Coffee Project at

"Simplified spelling is all right, but, like chastity, you can
carry it too far." Mark Twain, 1907

5. Readers' Comments

Hi Robert,
Thought I would drop you a line and share a concern I have with
your unquestioning support of politically correct coffee. The
specialty coffee industry is and should be about quality. If you
produce a demonstrably superior product it will command a higher
price. To make a coffee buying decision based on anything other
than on quality is doing a disservice to both oneself and our
industry. Anyone selling truly specialty coffee has no choice
but to buy "shade grown" because coffee grown otherwise is not
specialty coffee. They also have to pay a premium price because
great coffee just plain costs more (check the differentials on
any of the best coffees).
Brad Smith.....Distant Lands Coffee Roaster

Submitted by Jana

HEY, fellow javajunky. I had to make a comment on your reaction
to the woman upset at the smut - although I do not myself peruse
pornography (well, not often anyway) I know for a fact that
Perverts are Coffee Drinkers Too! True, your site has nothing
whatever to do with nakedness (other than the glory that is the
hulled, or nude, coffee cherry) but in this e-fueled world of
ours, where the dot-commandos dictate the borders of the
frontiers, or "waves" we "surf," one has to admit that a goodly
portion of revenues to be had comes from the coffers of the
sexually uninhibited (uninhibited whilst they're logged on,
anyway). Advertising is inherently evil; but is it really worse
to accept $$ for banner ads from horny people than from car
insurance companies, or from mega-bookstores that are swallowing
the independent, alternative presses? I ask you.

In any event, throughout the world wide web one seems to be
hard-pressed to avoid smut, and whatever your personal views may
be, I for one am grateful that we now have a medium that allows
for ALL to be heard, even if I am offended/grossed out/dismayed
by some of what's being said, or promoted. Let the wired of all
walks have their place in the airwaves!

Well that's enough counter-ranting for one night. Great

"And say not thou "My country right or wrong,"
Nor shed thy blood for an unhallowed cause." John Quincy Adams

6. Tech Stuff

Is your cellphone frying your brain? Take a look at this article
by Jesse Berst of ZDNET. It cuts through the hype. You might
have to copy and paste the url if the link doesn't work.,10738,2619763,00.html

For all the preaching I do about protecting your computer
against viruses, you'd think I would be more careful. I disabled
my Norton program a few weeks ago and then forgot to turn it
back on. I did a virus scan last night and I had 13 viruses.

The Norton program was able to repair all but one, and I have
sent the infected document (a Word document) to them for
analysis. I learned my lesson. Don't worry about this journal.
Any email you receive in plain text with no files attached is
safe. To learn more about protecting your computer:,5594,2248291,00.html

"I no doubt deserved my enemies, but I don't believe I deserved
my friends." Walt Whitman

7. Links to My Friends

Visit the links page on our website to get the latest links to
both coffee related and unrelated sites of interest. The links
page was last updated on July 29, 2000. Check it out. You might
find some old friends and make some new ones.

"Two roads diverged in a wood, and I---
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference." Robert Frost, 1916

8. Feedback

Tell me what you think. What do you want more of..less of...what
would you change, add, or delete?

Please direct all inquiries, comments, article submissions, and
suggestions to: Robert Badgett

(c) Copyright 2000 Robert L. Badgett. All Rights Reserved.

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